The population included Arabs, who at the beginning of their occupation of Andalusia were a minority, but then quickly increased their numbers; Berbers, who played an important role in occupying Andalusia, as they formed the majority of the army presided over by Andalusia's conquistador, Tarek Ibn Ziyad; Muladies, or Iberians who converted to Islam after the Arab-Muslim occupation; Mozarabs
, the Iberian Christians living under the Moorish rule who learned Arabic and its literature, having a great role in transmitting the Arab-Islamic culture to the Christian kingdoms; and Jews were also aplenty.
Hitchcock, R.: Mozarabs
in Medieval and Early Modern Spain.
He was thus concerned both with the rite as a historical artifact and as a present practice, even after he discovered that these two were very ferent traditions; the medieval manuscripts clearly did not contain the chants of the neo-Mozarabic rite as it had been constructcd and published tinder Cardinal Francisco Ximenet de Cisneros in the early sixteenth century and subsequently practiced by the Mozarabs
Given that the Mozarabs
knew how to read and write in Arabic --that is, they had access to the madrasa (Qur'anic School)--they also developed a form of writing in their own vernacular using Arabic script, known in Portuguese and Spanish as aljamiado.
Para el empleo del termino en diferentes periodos historicos vease Hitchcock Mozarabs
According to popular belief, this liturgy had been brought to Spain by Saint James, the apostle, after which it was supposedly adopted by Visigoths into their religious services and then later conserved by the Mozarabs
during four centuries of Arab rule (Garcia Arenal and Rodriguez Mediano 258).
Although classical Arabic was the official language on the Islamic territory, there were also two vernacular languages: An Arabic dialect mixed with Latin and Romance words, also called Andalusi Arabic and mainly spoken by the Muslim population, and a Vulgar Romance dialect, spoken by the Mozarabs
or Christian inhabitants on the Islamic territory.
Burman, Religious polemic and the intellectual history of the mozarabs
helped in the re-Christianization of Spain after the reconquest ended in 1492 by harmonizing Islamic concepts (Quaranic texts) with Christian theology, and, this alone is one of their major contributions to the history of Christian-Moslem relations in the past.
(1) But Islam's destruction of Hispano-Visigoth Spain and of its lingering heritage (the "Mozarabs
") is often glossed over by today's historians, in contrast to the abundant condemnations they bestow on the Christian West's treatment of "Third World" peoples.
It is rather that the meanings of these forms were in constant flux, just as Rodrigo's understanding of the Mozarabs
and their culture was.
had ro solve the dilemma between the maintenance of the original feudal system or the insertion in the tributary mode of production of the Islamic society.