Pathologic Staging Categories for Head and Neck Mucosal Melanoma (a,b) pT Primary Tumor pTx Primary tumor cannot be assessed T3 Tumors limited to the epithelium and/or submucosa (mucosal disease
) [regardless of thickness or greatest dimension] (c) T4a Moderately advanced disease Tumor invades deep soft tissue, cartilage, bone, or overlying skin T4b Very advanced disease Tumor invades any of the following: brain, dura, skull base, lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, XII), masticator space, carotid artery, prevertebral space, or mediastinal structures (a) Reproduced with permission from Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) in Brierley et al (3): Brierley JD, Gospodarowicz MK, Wittekind C, eds.
The patient who did not have any skin lesions developed mucosal disease
20 years after returning from Bolivia.
Ileocolonoscopy directly visualizes the mucosa and allows for direct tissue sampling, resulting in high diagnostic sensitivity for mucosal disease
. Only a short segment of the terminal ileum may be accessible.
A scoring system for mucosal disease
severity with special reference to oral lichen planus.
Osteomeatal complex disease (OMD) is an inflammatory mucosal disease
which affects the anterior ethmoid cells, the ethmoid infundibulum, and the drainage pathways leading to the middle meatus.
BVDV leads to diarrhea, respiratory disease, reproductive disorders, mucosal disease
and congenital malformations in all ages cattle (Oguzoglu et al., 2012).
Therefore, in the process of diagnosing a suspected immune-mediated oral mucosal disease
, the possibility of drug involvement as the aetiological factor or as a cofactor should always be considered, particularly in those cases which run an atypical clinical course .
Off-label use of biologicals in the management of inflammatory oral mucosal disease
. J Oral Pathol Med.
 Sinusitis causes inflammation of the middle ear mucosa with increased and persistent mucoid/mucopurulent discharge and causes active mucosal disease
. [7,8] Sinusitis is the significant aetiological factor for middle ear disease of COM--active mucosal type and treating sinusitis by FESS in subjects result in the good outcome of disease clearance.
T: primary tumour N: regional lymph node M: distant metastasis T3: mucosal disease
NX: regional lymph MO: no distant nodes that cannot be metastasis assessed T4a: moderately advanced NO: no regional M1: distant disease involving deep lymph node metastasis present soft tissues, bone, and metastasis overlying skin T4b: very advanced disease involving brain, N1: regional lymph dura, skull base, lower node metastasis cranial nerves (IX, X, present XI, and XII), masticator space, paravertebral space, or mediastinal structures Different clinical stages of oral mucosal melanoma Stage T N M Stage III T3 NO MO Stage IVa T4a NO MO or T3-T4a N1 MO Stage IVb T4 Any N MO Stage IVc Any T Any N M1
There was also mucosal disease
in the right ethmoid, frontal, and sphenoid regions.
(1) EM with mucosal involvement is called "erythema multiforme major," and EM without mucosal disease
(as in our patient's case) is called "erythema multiforme minor." (2)