The first assay tested 1 g per L [AI] LE nootkatone + 1 mL per L of a non-ionic emulsifier (EZ Mulse, Florida Chemical Co., Winter Haven, Florida, USA) solution against T.
The second assay tested the effectiveness of 1 g per L [AI] and 2 g per L [AI] LE nootkatone solutions (both with 1 mL per L EZ Mulse) against T.
The third assay followed the same methodology as the second leaf disc assay but evaluated a combination 1 g per L [AI] LE nootkatone + 0.1% carvacrol + 1 mL per L EZ Mulse solution or a 1 mL per L EZ Mulse control solution against T.
Leaf discs with eggs were dipped for 10 s in 10 mL solutions of 1 mL per L EZ Mulse, 1 g per L [AI] LE nootkatone, 1 g per L [AI] LE nootkatone + 1 mL per L EZ Mulse, or a water control then returned to the floral foam.
In the first assay, a solution of 1 g per L [AI] LE nootkatone mixed with 1 mL per L EZ Mulse was evaluated while a second assay mixed 0.7 mL per L carvacrol with the nootkatone/Mulse solution.
On d 0, 7 d after leaf discs were first placed on cotyledons, plants were treated with a test solution or 1 mL per L EZ Mulse (control) solution.
A third assay evaluated a mixture of 1 g per L [AI] LE nootkatone + 1 mL per L carvacrol + 1 mL per L EZ Mulse against T.
Additional tests were performed using oil concentrations of 0, 5, or 10 percent with 2 percent Sucrose Ester L-595 or 1695, 0.2 percent Fenugreek Absolute, 0.2 percent Xanthan, 10 percent Natural Mulse
, or 4 percent Citrus Burst (Table 1).