Most importantly these are (i) the effects associated with electromagnetic wave scattering by local contrast irregularities of the space through which the signals propagate, (ii) interference effects which play an important role in the case of multipath propagation
, and (iii) effects provoking gradual variations in the wave propagation direction and velocity in the case of smooth changes of the electric parameters of the medium (refraction).
According to multipath propagation
, the narrow band MIMO channel matrix elements can be written as
The second part of Section 2 describes multipath propagation
modeling and introduces the Monte Carlo method to modify the phase factors of different paths for the statistical characteristics of echo signals.
s (t) is the OFDM symbol transmitted with N subcarriers, on account of the wireless multipath propagation
, the received signal at the m-th antenna element can be formulated as,
Ihara, "Effects of antenna directivity and polarization on indoor multipath propagation
characteristics at 60 GHz," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol.
Reasons for this include a low received signal power due to signal blocking or shadowing and multipath propagation
This work, therefore, is aimed at finding an alternative way of modifying the free space propagation model with the help of system identification method to provide the effect of multipath propagation
in our specific study region (i.e., Ethiopia).
In this circumstance, the wireless signal is affected by the scattering, refection, and diffraction, which can cause multipath propagation
. Due to the wheat plant usually block the path between the transmitter and receiver, the radio propagation environment in wheat field is complex.
5 show that APs with mean RSS values under -80 dBm, have a standard deviation under 5 dB, being less affected by fading and multipath propagation
. The correlation between the low values of the standard deviation and the mean RSS, hints that the impacting fading has components generated by multi-path propagation .
The aim of the work was to analyze temporal changes of the impact of multipath propagation
of GNSS pseudo-range signal used for positioning (determined via code pseudorange observations) during the calendar year, depending on weather conditions change (especially as a result of foliage of trees, changes in surfaces reflectance due to rain or snow, etc.).
Tan, "Research on measurement and modeling of wireless channel multipath propagation
properties for U-shape cutting," Tiedao Xuebao/Journal of the China Railway Society, vol.