Most of these novels reflected the popular Victorian era campaign for Muscular Christianity
, an English philosophical movement that emphasized patriotism, manliness, athleticism, teamwork, and self-sacrifice.
As a proponent of muscular Christianity
, Naismith sought to build Christian characters in young men "and [basketball] was an instrument or vehicle through which he could teach people these values.
A hundred years later, muscular Christianity
evolved into what I'd call extreme Christianity.
As work for middle class men shifted away from physical labor, muscular Christianity
provided men with physical exercises that trained individuals to exhibit physical control (Cahn 1994).
Grossman linked Christian civilization with brutal, fratricidal slaughter, an accusation of muscular Christianity
taken to an aggressive extreme.
Contemporary men's ministries comprise what might be called a "third wave" of Muscular Christianity
This was further emphasised by Oxford and Cambridge and thus the cult of muscular Christianity
Brooke was the typical exemplar of a Victorian classical education wedded to a middle-class tradition of muscular Christianity
The former harkens back to the earliest days of sport fiction: the muscular Christianity
of Tom Brown's School Days (1857) and the dime novels aimed at the young audiences of Frank Kierriwell at Yale (1903), while the latter reveals the late nineteenth century influence of MFA writing workshops.
47-55), and his application of Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework of the play between material and cultural power in society, to the cultural politics of 'misrecognition' that Thomas argues underpins the global-local field of muscular Christianity
Strauss (1987) establishes the term muscular Christianity
to describe the kind of pragmatist creed initiated in the 1850s by Thomas Wentworth Higginson and Edward Everett Hale; a creed which Murray elaborated on in his writing.
The muscular Christianity
of the early twentieth-century drove the American soldier and war worker to read the Great War's traumatic events not just on a geo-political scale but on a cosmological, metaphysical one such that one war worker desired, "to kill this power of evil, this brute beast of Germany, to drive this thing forever off the earth and out of our children's future" (29).