Such an idea had already been proposed by certain rebellious Kharijite groups and rationalist mutazilite
the summary of the thinking of the Mutazilite
al-Nazzam ([??] 840) in al-Asha-RI, Maqalat al-islamiyin (Staatsdruckerei, Istanbul/Leipzig, 1929-1933) 486.
Since the end of the 13th century and the defeat of the Mutazilite
school of thought that had given rise to Arab supremacy by using rational discourse and scientific methods, and the ascendency of the rival school of the Ashaarites and its dependency on anti-rationalism, Arab culture has been waging a losing battle with modernity.
In the same fashion, Islam is Western." (11) His reading of history as "transversal" and cosmopolitan have been explained through the Mutazilite
thinkers in Islamic history, and the transformation of knowledge from the Islamic world to Europe during the Middle Ages.
Goldziher asserts that Mutazilite
rationalists were opposed to deduction of religious truths from tradition.
hagiography opens--and closes--with a paean to the 20th-century Muslim scholar Fazlur Rahman, credited with tracing Islam's purported "intellectual suicide" to the predictably bloody rejection of this violent, autocratic movement's so-called rationalism.
At the center of MuTazilite
thought, Vasalou plausibly claims, is the concept of desert, the 'unanalyzable definiens of all moral language' (76).
He would be tossed into prison for believing literally the human attributes of God, which was considered by the Mutazilite
clergy to be an analogy, and assigning God human attributes is to humanize God, the almighty.
Virtually alone among Indonesian Muslim intellectuals he was a proponent of the rationalist Mutazilite
school of Islamic theology.
The first significant theological school in Islam was the Mutazilite
school (those who refrain), which initiated the discussion of Islamic doctrine in terms of Greek philosophical conceptions.
Abu Zaid's research involves the use of modern linguistic methods to uncover the 'Mutazilite
concepts of figurative speech in Quranic exegesis', derived from Mutazilah's rationalist school which was in turn derived from Greek philosophical thought, according to which, God will not act contrary to reason.
In direct contrast to the Sunni, the Shia tended to accept the Mutazilite
view of the nature of the Quran, which the Sunnis rejected as heretical.