the summary of the thinking of the Mutazilite
Since the end of the 13th century and the defeat of the Mutazilite
school of thought that had given rise to Arab supremacy by using rational discourse and scientific methods, and the ascendency of the rival school of the Ashaarites and its dependency on anti-rationalism, Arab culture has been waging a losing battle with modernity.
124/125: The stories about the oryx and ass in paradise show M's empathy with animals, but it is also worth noting that MuTazilite
theologians argued that God's justice Cadl) required Him to reward and punish animals (cf.
11) His reading of history as "transversal" and cosmopolitan have been explained through the Mutazilite
thinkers in Islamic history, and the transformation of knowledge from the Islamic world to Europe during the Middle Ages.
Goldziher asserts that Mutazilite
rationalists were opposed to deduction of religious truths from tradition.
Caliph al-Mamun brutally subdued a Coptic Christian uprising in Lower Egypt, exterminating those who were not among the thousands enslaved and deported.
At the center of MuTazilite
thought, Vasalou plausibly claims, is the concept of desert, the 'unanalyzable definiens of all moral language' (76).
He would be tossed into prison for believing literally the human attributes of God, which was considered by the Mutazilite
clergy to be an analogy, and assigning God human attributes is to humanize God, the almighty.
Virtually alone among Indonesian Muslim intellectuals he was a proponent of the rationalist Mutazilite
school of Islamic theology.
The first significant theological school in Islam was the Mutazilite
school (those who refrain), which initiated the discussion of Islamic doctrine in terms of Greek philosophical conceptions.
In direct contrast to the Sunni, the Shia tended to accept the Mutazilite
view of the nature of the Quran, which the Sunnis rejected as heretical.
That would be the early 9th century, during which the Mutazilite
theology was formulated.