Called 'colorums,' the groups are a combination of religious cult and mutual aid societies
, promising eternal salvation in the here and now.
While coffeehouses, clubs, mutual aid societies
, and Red Crescent chapters were important to the social and political life of Michigan's Muslim communities, spaces such as those were male-centered and not considered suitable for women.
Most charity was provided by either private mutual aid societies
or black churches.
Such societies functioned as mutual aid societies
and often served as platforms for political debate and civic action when necessary.
His essay concerns the African religious and mutual aid societies
in Havana known as cabildos de nacion and the gender relations, within them, specifically the roles and occupations of men and women in positions of leadership.
Childs explores gender dynamics in the 'cabildos de nacion,' mutual aid societies
that developed in the Caribbean among African descendant communities as spaces for syncretic religious practices and political agency.
To me, the most fascinating part of the book is a pair of essays on the history of mutual aid societies
, written by two leading scholars in the field.
Cuba has a history of "bottom-up" ventures to draw from, including mutual aid societies
like Centro Gallego and Centro Asturiana, which helped immigrants from their respective regions in Spain to acclimate in Cuba in pre-communist times, said University of Miami economics professor Luis Locay.
He examines the roots of the NHS in 19th century workers' mutual aid societies
, its transformation from a gift economy to a system suborned to the demands of the market, and considers how the NHS could once again be separated from the market and be fashioned according to the principles of democratic socialism.
Because radical religious groups segregate their members from society and force them to prove their loyalty in myriad ways, this is where the mutual aid societies
and dress codes come in.
By demanding more influence in church affairs, political organizations, lyceums, literary, anti-slavery, and mutual aid societies
, schools, and fraternal orders, they forced their contemporaries to address the issue of female equality and challenged them to redefine what it meant to be a woman.
This speaks to circles' kinship with the mutual aid societies
and fraternal organizations that were vital for the survival of many groups in our country.