The Chemistry and Biology of Alkannin, Shikonin, and Related Naphthazarin
No reports can be found on the bioactivities of 3-ethyl-2,7-dihydroxynaphthazarin and islandoquinone, but unsubstituted naphthazarin has moderate radical scavenging activity towards DPPH radicals, excellent inhibitory effect on 5-lipoxygenase ([IC.sub.50] = 3 [micro]M) and potent anti-proliferative activity towards human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells) among selected lichen compounds with an [IC.sub.50] = 0.7 [micro]M (Muller et al, 1997).
Hybocarpone, a novel cytotoxic naphthazarin derivative from mycobiont cultures of the lichen Lecanora hybocarpa.
Chen et al., "Naphthazarin
and methylnaphthazarin cause vascular dysfunction by impairment of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and increased superoxide anion generation," Toxicology in Vitro, vol.
Effects of Fusarium solani naphthazarin toxins on the cytology and ultrastructure of rough lemon seedlings.
ELISA and Immunocytochemical Detection of Fusarium solani-produced Naphthazarin toxins in citrus trees in Florida.
Effect of Naphthazarin toxins, produced by Fusarium solani, on three citrus rootstocks in a hydroponioc system.
Ernst-Russel MA, Elix JA, Chai CLL, Willis AC, Hamada N, Nash TH (1999) Hybocarpone, a novel cytotoxic naphthazarin
derivative from mycobiont cultures of the lichen Lecanora hybocarpa.