But if closed in on itself, racial attitudes, such as negritude
, can become a dead end.
And, having often criticised and pleaded with him when he was alive, I am still left with the idea that he who could see through the modern disguises of ornamental multi-racialism, so Luanda and elsewhere, was also an embodiment, a personification of the pain and contradictions, as well as the misunderstanding of, or about, the frustrations of Africa and negritude
But Enwezor doubts whether the theories of negritude
, pan-Africanism, and pan-Arabism precipitated by concepts of liberation and independence can be considered finished, historical documents concerned solely with the "decade of African independence.
B Dubois, George Padmore, AimE CEsaire, Jacques Romain, Marcus Garvey, Kwame Nkrumah, SEkou TourE and many unnamed female thinkers, early in the century, to invent such concepts as negritude
, pan-Africanism, and back-to-Africa movements.
Lazarus contextualizes Armah's political discourse in terms of the theories of Fanon and the Frankfurt School so successfully that one wishes he had included a comparable analysis of the influence of Negritude
, Black Consciousness, or Black Power, which were very important during the period in which Armah wrote the works Lazarus highlights.
Race, Culture, and Identity: Francophone West African and Caribbean Literature and Theory from Negritude
writers, Kofi Awoonor writes in The Breast of the Earth, "It is less in the theme than in the manner.
The satire on Negritude
is evident when Mboudjak's mistress has his hair curled and some "intellectuels africanistes" remark, "Pauvre chien aliene de sa canitude.
The show should give us an opportunity to explore certain notions, like Pan-Africanism and Negritude
, that have been completely denied in some of the historical studies of modernity and, at the same time, open up a terrain to begin to deal with the image of contemporary Africa and the notion of memory.
Nicolas Guillen and Aime Cesaire have long been poles of reference in Caribbean literature, but Josaphat Kubayanda is right when he argues that these twin pillars of negrismo and negritude
have never before been put side by side, at least so methodically.
What is more, for a brief historical juncture, Senghor and his affiliates were able to posit Negritude
as a viable philosophical model in which to realize this Pan African unity.
1) Philosophically, literary movements such as Negritude
,(2) while promoting the revitalization (and, as some would say, the reinvention) of African thought, have left women out of the literary loop, circumscribing their selfhood within the larger, what V.