Upon freezing the katydid, a horsehair worm (Nematomorpha
) emerged from the abdominal apex.
That index has been used to evaluate the susceptibility of the gordiid species Chordodes nobilii Camerano, 1901 (Gordiida, Nematomorpha
) to environmental contamination (Achiorno, de Villalobos, & Ferrari, 2008a, 2009, 2010, 2015) and to variations in temperature (Achiorno, de Villalobos, & Ferrari, 2008b), for which purpose assay protocols specific for this group have been developed.
2 and 5 Other Metazoa Phyla Other Eukaryote Phyla Chaetognatha Ciliophora Ctenophora Other Alvelata Entoprocta Amoebozoa Hemichordata Cryptophyta Loricifera Loukozoa Gnathifera Glaucophyta Onochophora Choanozoa Porifera Picozoa Rotifera Foraminifera Xenoturbeiidea Rhodophyta Acanthocephala Myzozoa Chordata Apusozoa Cycliophora Heliozoa Gnathostomulida Percolozoa Kinohycha Euglenozoa Mesozoa Haptophyta Nematomorpha
Metamunada Placozoa Cercozoa Priapulida Radiozoa Sipuncula Uncultured unicellular Uncultured Metazoa Eukaryote Acknowledgments
According to Rocha (2002), only 30% of the freshwater invertebrate diversity is presently known and some taxon as Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, Nematoda, Nematomorpha
, Bryozoa, Annelida and several insect groups need specialists, collections and/or minimum updated information on identification, distribution and autoecology.
Among animals, there were Mesozoa, Gnathostomulida, Bryozoa, Cycliophora, Myzostomida, and Nemertea; also there are Rotifera, Nematomorpha
, Scalidophora, Acanthocephala, Entoprocta, and Gastrotricha from Coelomata.
Juvenile horsehair or gordiid worms (Nematomorpha
) are parasites of terrestrial arthropods (often crickets and beetles) and, as adults, are free-living in freshwater sites including lakes, streams, and rivers.
Gastrotricha, Cycloneuralia, and Gnathifera; v.1: Nematomorpha
, Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera.
5: Nonarthropods (Protozoans, Porifera, Cnidaria, Plathyhelminthes, Nemertea, Rotifera, Nematoda, Nematomorpha
, Gastrotrichia, Bryozoa, Tardigrada, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta and Hirudinea).
Organisms that were relatively rare in stomach contents included beetles (Coleoptera), horsehair worms (Nematomorpha
), segmented worms (Oligochaeta), terrestrial arthropods, and fish.
About 300 species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha
) are known, about a third of them from Europe (Schmidt-Rhaesa 1997).
ABSTRACT -- The present work reviews the hosts, distributions, synonyms and taxonomic characters of North American hairworms (Gordioidea: Nematomorpha
) and presents a key based on adult morphological characters that can be observed under the dissecting and light microscopes.