His theory, which established the 'Vulcanist' interpretation of the primacy of the volcanic activity in elevating new land masses as opposed to the 'Neptunist
,' "retreating-ocean model ...
Jameson (a neptunist
) contradicted many of Hutton's (plutonist) observations at the same localities.
Some of them, including Oratio de Telluris Habitabilis Incremento (Discourse on the Increase of Habitable Land), refer to aspects of the "economy of nature." Linnaeus's starting position is in agreement with Neptunist
ideas, and he affirms that all the land was under the waters in the "infancy of the world." A single island paradise emerged, where all the animals lived and where conditions were favorable for them.
Yet for political reasons Goethe adopted a Neptunist
view of earth history.
However, most geologists remained under the spell of a German geologist, Abraham Gottlob Werner (1750-1817), who was a Neptunist
(see 1752) and insisted that water was the source of all change in the Earth's surface.
the World, as we Know 't," which begins with an inspired opening line: "The neptunists
and vulcanists were going at it hammer and tongs." Even better, the story, like Le Guin and Attebery's collection, lives up to its initial promise.
, and racists (such as Gobineau, Cuvier, and Renan, who created hierarchies of civilizations based on skin color) aroused Flaubert's skepticism, more baldly displayed in Bouvard et Pecuchet.