But when communist revolutions in the rest of Europe failed, Joseph Stalin and Nikolai Bukharin
reconceived the Soviet Union's historic task as the construction of "socialism in one country." The Soviet Union itself was originally conceived as a federation of socialist republics under the yoke of a dual institutional structure comprising a bureaucracy of "habitual" ministries, on the one hand, and the Communist Party, on the other.
Stalin's opponents--Trotsky, Lev Kamenev, Nikolai Bukharin
, and others--lacked his drive, discipline, and organizational abilities, and were incapable of uniting to block his consolidation of power.
A few of its members had died natural deaths, but most of them from Lev Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev (a particularly close comrade of Lenin's during his European exile) to Nikolai Bukharin
(one of the most affectionately regarded members of the party hierarchy) and Karl Radek had been executed at Stalin's behest.
It emphasized the role of Lenin's April Theses in laying out the Bolshevik revolutionary strategy and his own role in preventing unfaithful party leaders (Trotsky, Nikolai Bukharin
, and many others) from sabotaging the socialist revolution.
dubbed Pavlov's research findings "a tool from the iron inventory of materialist ideology." (4) Indeed, it would make perfect sense to suggest that the extraordinary level of Pavlov's financial support could be explained by his contribution to the Bolshevik worldview.
Under Stalin, even if, like the doomed Nikolai Bukharin
, you had a hinterland and some humane instincts, there was no relenting: your family were the "cogs in the machine" that ensured you kept working.
Near the end, a recitation of the names of different avatars of Vishnu (from the more standard Rama and Krishna to Mohini, the only female one) seamlessly extends to include appelations of Communist thinkers and leaders from around the world (Vietnamese general Vo Nguyen Giap; Bolshevik rebels Nikolai Bukharin
, Leon Trotsky, and Lev Kamenev; Romanian Communist Nicolae Ceaugescu), aligning ideas of cosmic rebirth and political revolution.
Lenin's death amid the ballooning of a bureaucratic state and party apparatus, a temporary alliance of Comintern chieftain Gregory Zinoviev with Stalin against Trotsky, then an alliance of Stalin and Nikolai Bukharin
against Zinoviev and Trotsky, and finally Stalin's triumphant rupture with Bukharin--all were reflected within the Comintern and had an impact on developments within US Communism.
But succession in the Soviet system was never assured, and Stalin was faced with struggles from the "left," meaning not just Trotsky but Grigori Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev, and from the "right," meaning Nikolai Bukharin
, Nikolai Rykov, and Mikhail Tomsky.
In the early years of the Russian revolution, Bolshevik leader Nikolai Bukharin
drew on Marx's arguments about the link between human society and nature.
The Eastern European branch is easily the most interesting and numerous, counting among them the wives of Stalin, Molotov, Kliment Voroshilov (a major military figure), Nikolai Bukharin
(liquidated by Stalin in the last show-trial in 1938), Oscar Gomulka, once the head of Communist Poland, and who can forget the lifelong love of pre-WWII King Carol of Romania, Magda Lupescu (Elena Wolff in Yiddish)?
High-ranking officials like Nikolai Bukharin
and Anatoli Lunacharsky visited the region to get a sense of the situation.