However, the contribution of VGSCs is not limited just to nociception
; they are required for the proper functioning of other organs such as the brain, heart, skeletal muscles, and uterus.
a basic nerve response to harmful stimuli found in all animals or lower-order pain, "suffering supposes a certain level of cognitive functioning", he said in an interview.
, a basic nerve response to harmful stimuli found in all animals, or lower-order pain, "suffering supposes a certain level of cognitive functioning," he said in an interview.
The methods selected were chemical nociception
in the test model of acetic acid-induced writhing and thermal nociception
hot plate and tail immersion test.
It is not clear whether there are visceral neurons dedicated solely to nociception
; it appears that viscera utilize sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons as nociceptors.
New insights of dimethyl sulphoxide effects (DMSO) on experimental in vivo models of nociception
Indeed, it seems best to regard the motor function of the NRM as primary so that the suppression of nociception
and activation of sympathetic autonomic output may be viewed as serving an accessory role in preparing the organism for locomotion [20,23-24].
They investigate neuroendocrine relationships, the polyvagal concept and nociception
Some of the difficulty might arise in the conflation of nociception
The papers are organized into sections covering basic mechanisms of muscle pain including morphology and functional types of peripheral muscle nociceptors, central neurophysiological mechanisms involved in nociception
, and cortical representation of muscle nociception
; factors influencing muscle nociceptive mechanisms, such as genetics, gender, chronic pain, analgesics, and pain from other tissues; the effects of musculoskeletal pain on muscle function in the lower back, neck, and jaw muscle systems; and advanced neurophysiological assessments of muscle function.
Opioids have been used medicinally for millennia for their potent effects on nociception
. However, the past 20 years have led to important insights into the influences and mechanisms of opioid actions, which are more extensive than merely analgesia, including human synthesis of opioids, critical roles of opioids during development and following nerve injury, and actions of different opiate alkaloids and their receptors.
"Vitamin D inadequacy may represent an underrecognized source of nociception
and impaired neuromuscular functioning among patients with chronic pain," he said.