nonequilibrium

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nonequilibrium

(ˌnɒnˌiːkwɪˈlɪbrɪəm)
n
(Biology) biology a state in which the rate of increase is not equal to the rate of decrease
adj
relating to a lack of equilibrium
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Non-equilibrium thermodynamics with current multipliers introduces a unified constitutive theory of heat conduction where several generalizations of Fourier equation may be obtained as special cases [14].
I can certainly recommend this book to readers who are interested in understanding the relevance of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in the processes of life and the environment.
At the macroscopic level one proceeds to write down rate equations for macroscopic variables, such as coverages of the various surface species, guided by the principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics.
While linear irreversible thermodynamics was fully developed in the middle 20th century, he says, a unified formulation of non-linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics is clearly needed, and he furthers that endeavor by reviewing classical and new elements of the phenomenological and the statistical approaches.
From the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, it can be assumed that there must be a self-organizing system in the evolutionary development of political system.
The book concludes with a discussion of non-equilibrium thermodynamics as applied to the atmosphere.
They cover theory and applications of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in nonlinear chromatography and electrophoresis, biomimetic chromatography as a useful tool in drug discovery, solid-phase microextraction for in vivo pharmacokinetics and other stages of drug development, identifying and detecting antibiotic drugs and their degradation products in aquatic samples, preparing samples for chromatographic analysis, developing HPLC retention index QSAR models for non-targeted metabolomics, and thin-layer chromatography with a controlled gas phase influencing the separation.
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics has been applied with success to numerous phenomena even in the form that nowadays is referred to as 'classical irreversible thermodynamics'.
In our discussion of complexity, it is necessary to distinguish two distinct branches of thermodynamics: (a) equilibrium thermodynamics; and (b) non-equilibrium thermodynamics.
Ilya Prigogine, recipient of the 1977 Nobel Prize for his work in non-equilibrium thermodynamics and a leading thinker in the fields of chaos and complexity.
This edition has been expanded to include a new chapter on shell rings that emphasizes the importance of interaction between disciplines, scientific work and case studies from various continents, and additional material on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, complexity theory, and other cross-disciplinary interactions.
Thus, from the theoretical viewpoints of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, it is assumed that the political system as a self-organizing complexity can overcome a system's fluctuations through the creative function of disorder.

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