Further firm characteristics controlled for in all output and input equations include firm age (Age), whether the company is foreign-owned (Foreign), whether the firm has recently experienced company restructuring in the form of spinoffs (Spinoff) or merging (Merger), the intensity of price (Price Competition) and non-price competition
), (1) and the industry affiliation (NACE 2-digit).
While the extent and importance of non-price competition
can be difficult to quantify, this should not change the proper application of government powers.
Each of the models introduced postulates an "as if' story, the merit of the family of models being the range of possible levels of price and non-price competition
as well as collusion in the industry.
determined by patient selection of supplier may be a more adequate manner of enhancing some dimensions of quality (Nica, 2015a, b) than buyer-supplier contracting.
We examine, in order, research on the topics of price rigidity and other pricing practices, non-price competition
and barriers to entry, internal organisation of the firm, and the political and economic power exerted by large firms.
The DOJ alleged that these restraints suppressed price and non-price competition
by prohibiting a merchant from offering discounts or other benefits to customers for the use of any particular card.
Furthermore, maximum price fixing may limit distribution to large firms capable of withstanding lower profit margins, while limiting or even eliminating the non-price competition
They also argue that because members of the cartel cannot engage in competition based on price, they are forced into non-price competition
, resulting in an "arms race" among members, especially in the form of new facilities construction, that causes most members to lose money.
No one model is broad enough to account for all of these activities, hence we begin with some simple abstraction, namely that the firms arrive at a pricing strategy through non-market means, and that the firms rely heavily on non-price competition
for their survival.
THE COMMISSION CONTENDS THAT ISP STARTED PRICE AND NON-PRICE COMPETITION
AMONG STORE PLANNERS, WHETHER THEY WERE MEMBERS OR THE INSTITUTE OR NOT.
Asda had argued it could bring prices at Safeway down 15 per cent, but the OFT said price was not always a reliable indicator of underlying competitiveness in an industry in which there is significant non-price competition
Professor Garel Rhys OBE, director, Centre for Automotive Industry Research, Cardiff Business School told industrialists there are exciting times ahead with super competition, less product differentiation and severe price and non-price competition