70) Although FDA has tried to evade the Delaney Clause, finding various statutory loopholes to subject carcinogens to the one-in-one million de minimis threshold instead, (71) I am not aware of evidence that the FDA has regularly subverted this safety threshold or the parallel threshold for noncarcinogens
to serve nonsafety goals.
We used established unit risk estimates for carcinogens and/or chronic reference values for noncarcinogens
to set thresholds for each category.
For sources emitting noncarcinogens
, the Agency could delist ah industry if, inter alia, its emissions do not "exceed a level which is adequate to protect public health with an ample margin of safety.
His team administered known carcinogens and noncarcinogens
to the novel mice.
Benzene is an interesting example as it is a nonchlorinated carcinogen, while many compounds formed by chlorine substitution -- mono-chlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, cresol -- are chlorinated noncarcinogens
, response generally is modeled as a nonlinear function of dose, which suggests the use of the following simple and commonly used form (ICF 1986):(3)
Since the percentages of xylene, cumene and biphenyl in Part I and xylene and biphenyl in Part II are below the SARA diminimus level (1% for noncarcinogens
What you're really interested in,' hesays, "is not the number of carcinogens found, so much as [an accurate] discrimination between carcinogens and noncarcinogens
9% of the total exposure to the carcinogenic PAHs BaP, [SIGMA] 2PAH, [SIGMA] 4PAH, and [SIGMA] 8PAH, respectively, were attributed to inhalation during showering, which suggests that inhalation exposure primarily involves PAHs classified as noncarcinogens
or as low potency carcinogens.
Several authors have specifically suggested that the BMDL may serve as a PoD for carcinogens and noncarcinogens
alike, leading to an integrated approach to cancer and noncancer risk assessment (Gaylor et al.
For instance, 50% of noncarcinogens
among pharmaceuticals have some findings in genotoxicity assays (Hoffmann and Hartung 2006; MacDonald 2004; Snyder 2009; Snyder and Green 2001).
Among a group of chemicals of mixed chemical class, a greater percentage of the compounds that are mutagenic in the Salmonella assay arc likely to be rodent carcinogens compared with the percentage of nonmutagens likely to be noncarcinogens
(Kirkland et al.