Using cutting-edge statistical models to analyze data from nearly 2,000 families with an autistic child, a multi-institute research team discovered tens of thousands of rare mutations in noncoding DNA
sequences and assessed if these contribute to autism spectrum disorder.
In addition to DNA storage [1-3], DNA steganography for secret communication or encryption using noncoding DNA
sequences  has been widely studied for decades.
The accumulation of work has demonstrated the capacity of CRISPR/Cas9 for screening both coding and noncoding DNA
sequences on a genomewide scale .
They suggest that the observed noncoding DNA
increases and compositional patterns are primarily a function of increased information content [11, 12].
The monoamino acid usage is the 21 amino acid (20 amino acids plus one "STOP" codon) frequencies occurring in the DNA sequences, some of which are linearly related to the GC-content of the genome  and are important in discriminating coding and noncoding DNA
These include virus manipulation, genome editing, noncoding DNA
, and epigenetics.
Further efforts are needed to investigate the potential mechanisms of SCZ, such as noncoding DNA
, CNS-specific somatic variations, and different profiles of CNVs and epigenetics.
On the other end of the DNA privacy spectrum is the emergence of whole-genome sequencing; these data sets contain both protein coding and noncoding DNA
, including STR regions.
But see The ENCODE Project Consortium, Identification and Analysis of Functional Elements in 1% of the Human Genome by the ENCODE Pilot Project, 447 NATURE 799, 799 (2007); Jenny Marder, Mysterious Noncoding DNA
: 'Junk' or Genetic Power Player?, PBS (Nov.
Chandra, "Sex determination: a hypothesis based on noncoding DNA
," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Rare disease-causing mutations, such as those that spark cancer, may also fall in that vast, mysterious territory known as noncoding DNA
Genes are made up of 'exons' and 'introns' - the former being the sequences that code for protein and are expressed, and the latter being stretches of noncoding DNA