The cognitive mediation model of learning from the news: Evidence from nonelection
, off-year election, and presidential election contexts.
'We note that growth during election years is usually faster compared to the growth in nonelection
years,' he added.
(23) First and Fourteenth Amendment jurisprudence analyzes constitutional rights under this framework in both the election law and nonelection
The 103-point average difference for this component in 2017, a nonelection
year, was larger than the previous high of 91 points recorded in the election years of 2004 and 2012.
Ideally, these would be relatively small and nimble bodies (seven members would be perfect, I think) with members appointed in nonelection
years (to minimize tangling up board appointments with political campaigns), serving staggered terms (to ensure stability and keep board members from becoming beholden to a particular elected official), and limited in the number of terms they could serve (e.g.
Because there are few peaceful and participatory ways of addressing ethnic tensions in nonelection
years here, elections often devolve into an outlet for expressing pent-up frustrations.
(2012) found that the industry-level return volatility becomes significantly higher in national election periods than in nonelection
Under normal circumstances, a $4.2 million day in May of a nonelection
year would be inconceivable.
While western countries without mandatory voting exhibit what are perceived as rather low turnout rates (e.g., in the United States, since 1970, election turnout has been between 50% and 55% during presidential election years, and between 35% and 40% during nonelection
years), countries with some abstention sanctions unsurprisingly show rather high participation rates, with turnout often exceeding 90%, regardless of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita.
In fact, based on our analysis, we find that real GDP growth, real consumer spending growth, real business fixed investment growth, real disposable income growth, and industrial production growth are actually stronger during presidential election years compared to nonelection
years (Figure 1).
I've tracked the country's GDP (gross domestic product) growth data over the last 15 years and noted that the economy grew at an annual average of 7 percent in election years, against only 4.5 percent in nonelection
The average coefficient for sitting presidents in nonelection
years is lower than when they are on the ballot but still quite substantial.