This report addresses systems using ionizing radiation, but also describes briefly some systems under consideration that utilize nonionizing
The development of microwave absorbing techniques continues to attract much attention because of the increasing environmental pollution from nonionizing
microwave irradiation and the essential part of a stealth defense system for all military platforms [1-5].
Because it has the advantages of being stable, easy to use, nonionizing
, and capable of recording activities from deep muscles without cross talk from adjacent muscles , ultrasonography has been used to detect muscle thickness changes [26-27], pennation angle [28-29], cross-sectional area [30-31], and muscle fascicle length [32-34] both in static and quasi-static conditions during the past decades.
Resonance Imaging has issued a report stating that "MR may be used in pregnant women if other nonionizing
forms of diagnostic imaging are inadequate or if the examination provides important information that would otherwise require exposure to ionizing radiation." (5) While fetal harm has not been reported as a result of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the effects of fetal exposure have not yet been fully determined, which suggests cautious use, especially during the first trimester.
Further, besides detecting, identifying, and measuring ionizing radiation, the Section also has the capability to detect and measure nonionizing
The advantages include its noninvasive nature, lack of contrast exposure, nonionizing
radiation, high degree of resolution, and the ability to evaluate multiple potential pathologic processes.
We humans and all life on earth are involved in electromagnetic, electric, and magnetic fields and in a little over 100 years, we have increasingly been "bathed" in man-made fields from nonionizing
radiation such as radio frequency (RF) to ionizing radiation such as X-rays.
The scientific panel reached the conclusion that radiofrequency (RF) radiation from mobile phones, and from other devices, including cordless phones, that emit similar nonionizing
electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz, is a Group 2B, that is, a "possible," human carcinogen [4, 5].
"With respect to the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure or the socalled radiation, we wish to clarify that the EMF produced by the transmission lines with the required distances is well below the recommended longterm exposure levels prescribed by the International Commission on Nonionizing
Radiation Protection and adopted by the Department of Health," he said in an Oct.
Breast thermography is a noninvasive and nonionizing
Microwave tomography (MT) is a nonionizing
imaging modality capable of noninvasively recovering a wide range of dielectric property (DP) values [1-3].
Possessing many attractive characteristics such as the use of nonionizing
electromagnetic waves, good resolution and contrast, portable instrumentation, and the ability to partially quantitate the signal, photoacoustic techniques have been applied to the imaging of cancer, wound healing, disorders in the brain, and gene expression, among others.