(15,16) The 9 categories are inadequate (Sal 1, previous P1), cyst contents only (Sal 1c, previous P1), inflammatory nonneoplastic
(Sal 2I, previous P2), benign neoplastic (Sal 2N, previous P3), atypical (Sal 3, previous P4), suspicious (Sal 4, previous P4), primary salivary gland malignancy (Sal 5P, previous P5), malignancy not otherwise specified (Sal 5NOS, previous P5), and metastatic malignancy (Sal 5M, previous P6).
 Further, certain nonneoplastic
lesions of ovary frequently form a pelvic mass and often associated with abnormal hormonal manifestations, thus potentially mimicking ovarian neoplasm  and very difficult to differentiate radiologically and clinically; hence, proper recognition and classification are required for management.
Moreover, MSI-PCR is susceptible to false-negative findings (18), owing to artifacts related both to tumor heterogeneity or contamination with nonneoplastic
immune infiltrate (19) and to lower mutational burdens in the context of specific MMR pathway deficiencies (15, 20).
Within the cervical mass, all monomorphic and blastoid cells (presumed neoplastic lymphoid cells) and few individual, nonneoplastic
cells within mixed aggregates showed strong positive cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for CD3 (Fig 3B).
conditions suspected by clinicians included cyst in 21.5% of cases, granulomatous processes in 15.7%, and infectious disease in 4.7%.
They include early-stage cancer and advanced cancer that has advanced to the SS stage or further, in addition to nonneoplastic
lesions of the adenomyomatosis (ADM) and xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) (Figures 1(c) and 1(d)).
The term hamartoma is used to describe a nonneoplastic
, abnormal, and haphazard overgrowth of conglomerates of mature cells and tissues indigenous to the anatomic site from which it occurs, often with one predominating element [1, 2].
The high frequency of nonneoplastic
Hurthle cell proliferation in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be a diagnostic dilemma for the cytopathologist .
The etiology of IMT remains unknown, a review of the relevant literature suggesting more than one possible pathway of pathogenesis: a more truly neoplastic pathway in ALK-positive cases and a nonneoplastic
reactive pathway secondary to inflammation in ALK-negative cases.
In this study, a strong and diffuse positivity for p53 was observed in tissues adjacent to squamous cell carcinomas, but poor marking in nonneoplastic
Although vitreous or retinal tissue biopsy combined with cytology is the gold standard for diagnosis of PVRL, neoplastic cells are very fragile and often mixed with nonneoplastic
inflammatory cells, limiting the sensitivity of cytology ranging from 31% to 66.7%. Fortunately, the sensitivity can be significantly improved by further analyses including immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, cytokine analysis, and gene rearrangements by PCR.
Of the rest 50 cases with adequate material, 7 were neoplastic and 43 were nonneoplastic