Intron1 2653A>G of SUMO3 was significantly corresponding with carcass weight, hind leg circumference, hind leg length, loin thickness, fat coverage of carcass, and eye muscle area (pC sites do not conform to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which could be attributed to nonrandom mating
or selections existed in this Chinese Simmental cattle population.
[F.sub.is] is the inbreeding coefficient within individuals in a given population and can be interpreted as a measure of the reduction in heterozygosity due to nonrandom mating
within each population.
It was also, jointly with the inbreeding coefficient, used to evaluate the degree of nonrandom mating
, and calculated below:
By varying these parameters, students can explore the effects of violating Hardy-Weinberg assumptions regarding population size, selection, mutation, migration, and nonrandom mating
. Some basic population biology such as logistic growth and the Allee effect can also be explored by manipulating different parameters of the model.
Genetic change can occur when any of the conditions that lead to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are not met and migration, genetic drift, mutation, nonrandom mating
, or natural selection acts on a population (Box 2).
He then describes natural selection, two-locus dynamics, nonrandom mating
, and quantitative genetics, and concludes by describing the evolutionary advantage of sex, including the principles of Muller's ratchet and Kondrashov's hatchet.
This can be expressed as a mean reduction in expected heterozygosity within one level of a hierarchy because of nonrandom mating
at a higher level of the hierarchy.
This force is positive as selection favors higher viability ([Beta].sub.v] [greater than] 0) and nonrandom mating
causes genes for these three traits to positively covary ([B.sub.pv], [B.sub.ps], and [B.sub.sv] [greater than] 0).
in Clarkia gracilis (Onagraceae): a case of cryptic self-incompatibility.
For example, the calculation of allele frequencies relies on the assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, possible deviations from which include nonrandom mating
due to the separation of winged and wingless flies (if mating tends to occur on fresh food accesible to winged flies only).
Female Genotype Acceptable Male Genotype [T.sub.1][T.sub.1] [D.sub.1][D.sub.1] [T.sub.1][T.sub.0] [D.sub.1][D.sub.1], [D.sub.1][D.sub.0] [T.sub.0][T.sub.0] [D.sub.1][D.sub.1], [D.sub.1][D.sub.0], [D.sub.1][D.sub.0] The nonrandom mating
produced by the T locus generates positive linkage disequilibrium between the T and D alleles (i.e.
Does nonrandom mating
among wild radish plants occur in the field as well as in the greenhouse?