To reduce the number of categorical variables, we converted aspect into 2 continuous variables: northness and eastness (Gillingham and Parker 2008a, b).
Males selected for west aspects (i.e., significant negative eastness and insignificant northness) during Calving and Early Winter (Table 3), and for southeast aspects (i.e., significant positive eastness and negative northness) in Late Winter as did females.
Eastness and northness
indices were also generated and incorporated into the modelling to avoid the potential 'confusion' where values such as 359[degrees] and 1[degrees] are spatially very close but at opposite end of the co variate value range in terms of modelling inputs.
In single-mindedlyclambering for literal directionality, for northness
, Bergvall'sseafarer loses the ability to speak with fluidity, his tongue searchingthrough New and Old English to catch on glottally to the keyword itself:"Sailed on due north nord norp nord norit norpe norhnortht." In becoming hyper-focused on achieving northness
, theseafarer is unable to move beyond the word's direct articulation,an analogy for his being unable to move outside of himself.
In addition, we transformed aspect into two variables using sine and cosine functions to measure eastness and northness
, respectively (Zar 1996).
general lack of pesky 'northness
', availability of cutesy funicular railways, distance to offalbased foodstuffs, and the clincher - it has the word 'snow' in it.
Old Catawba is distinguished by its "Northness
," and South Carolina by its "Southness." And the "Northness
" of Old Catawba is better than the "Southness" of South Carolina.
Because aspect is a circular variable, we transformed it into two derived variables, northness
= cosine(aspect) and eastness = sine(aspect).
There is a feeling of Grim Up Northness
about the production, but the characters are so well drawn and the dialogue so authentic, the overall feeling is one of enormous energy.
Setts were negatively associated with elevation and positively associated with slope, aspect (northness
and eastness), soil sand content, the presence of cover and the area of improved grassland and arable agriculture within 300 m (Table 5).
To minimize issues of perfect separation between used and available points, we modeled aspect as 2 continuous variables (i.e., northness
and eastness; Roberts 1986); we did not assign an aspect to pixels with a slope [less than or equal to] 1[degrees].
We modeled aspect as 2 continuous variables (i.e., northness
and eastness; Roberts 1986) to avoid introducing additional categorical variables.