Hence, Cipion stands as the tragic figure while the Numantian
victory, which extolls values associated with the Latin epic, embodies Spain's future glories to be achieved through military excellence.
One way of approaching the problematic nature of these pieces is to consider the key roles played in each by certain malevolent intruders: the gaping hellmouth that threatens Philip II in El Greco's painting; the ominously diabolical Aminadab who lurks in the final stanza of San Juan's poem; and the disruptive devil that ruins the Numantian sacrificial ceremony in act two of Cervantes's play.
Moreover, an early scene in La Numancia involves a suspiciously named Milvio, who tells us that another young Numantian had died of "mal gobierno" (v.
The second act, for example, is constructed around two major Numantian rituals, relatively more religious than the militant Roman rituals of the first act, but still fragmented from a Christian perspective.
Chapter three moves on to Raphael's paintings in the Stanza d'Eliodoro to discuss Numancia's allusions to historical conflicts: Rome against the Numantian "barbarians," the emperor against the pope (in the Sack of Rome by Habsburg troops), and Catholics against Lutherans.
De Armas integrates the heroism of the Numantian women into his la rger discussion of Neoplatonic theories of concordance of opposites, in this case of Mars and Venus.
Salas Viu which emphasized the obvious parallels between the resistance of the Numantians and that of the Republican Loyalists:
He points out that in Act 1, when the besieged Numantians send two spokesmen to sue for peace with the besieging army of Scipio, Cervantes has the simple stage direction: 'Entran dos numantmos, embajadores'(La destruicion de Numancia, p.
8) Scott followed Wordsworth in comparing the modern Iberians with the ancient Numantians
who had resisted Rome in the second century BC (stanza XI).
9) Concuerdo con Paul Lewis-Smith cuando interpreta que aqui Cipion "feigns to believe that it is the Numantians
who have acted in error" (19).
While studying these aspects, I rely on the likely assumption that Cervantes used as sources well-known historical accounts of the conflict between the Numantians
and the Romans, such as Esteban de Garibay's Compendio historial (1571) and Ambrosio de Morales's Coronica general de Espaca (1574), as well as romances, particularly those published by Juan de Timoneda in Rosa gentil (1573), and classical works too.