Of the key principles of the resulting Nuremberg Code
, promulgated in 1947, the very first requires the informed and voluntary consent of the subject, regardless of their specific attributes:
Due to rapid growth and development of science in twentieth century, medical ethics saw new challenges resulting in formation of the famous Nuremberg Code
(1947) and American Medical Association (1947), the Declaration of Geneva (1948), Declaration of Helinski (1964) and development of hemodialysis with laws pertaining to it in 1970.
The formation of the principles led to the Nuremberg Code
to control future trials involving human subjects, a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation.
[4-6] They drafted a ten-point memorandum entitled Permissible Medical Experimentation,  which then became known as the Nuremberg Code
, the aim of which was to obtain a way forward on one of human experimentation's most fundamental conflicts: that of balancing the need for advancing medical science for the benefit of society with the rights of individuals to 'personal inviolability, autonomy and self-determination'.
Secret trials were also carried out in Scotland that victims allege broke the Nuremberg code
- research ethics principles for human experimentation set up as a result of the trials at the end of World War II.
Exactly one century after the AMA code, Nuremberg Code
. (3) was developed.
The following international research ethics guidelines were reviewed: the Nuremberg Code
, the Declaration of Helsinki, the Belmont Report, the guidelines for ethics committees that review biomedical research, and the Council for International Organisation of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) guidelines.
The freedom to choose your or your children's medical treatment was enshrined first in the Nuremberg Code
, and later in the Declaration of Helsinki (1964).Though Australia has no Bill of Rights, it has an historical convention that citizens have the right to choose their medical treatment.
These codes and guidelines include The Nuremberg Code
(1949), the Declaration of Helsinki (1964-2000), The Belmont Report (US, 1979), Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) and/ World Health Organization (WHO) International Guidelines (1993, 2002) and the ICH/GCP International Conference on Harmonization--Good Clinical Practice (EU, 1996).
After the Second World War, and even after the establishment of the Nuremberg Code
, America continued on its path toward implementing or revising eugenics programs.
The experiments and torture performed by Nazi physicians led to development of the Nuremberg Code
, which absolutely required patient consent prior to medical research (National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 1979; Nuremberg Military Tribunals, 1949).
Under the Nuremberg Code
, coerced medical treatments of any kind are unethical.