This paved the way for artists from the island such as Hector Lavoe and Tito Rodriguez, as well as Nuyoricans
(a portmanteau of New York and Puerto Rican) including Tito Puente, Willie Colon and Ray Barretto, who brought Latin jazz and salsa to mainstream audiences.
Pero no me refiero a los hippies del Festival Mar y Sol, celebrado en Vega Baja en 1972, sino a los nuyoricans
, esos puertorriquenos cuya diferencia cultural requeria de un neologismo para ser reconocida.
Central Park was not exempt; it had become a central location where first-generation Nuyoricans
(Puerto Ricans born in New York), Dominican Yorks (Dominicans born in New York), and other Afro-descendants met at the rhythm of the drum.
The premise of the first section in the critic's essay, which serves as a springboard for his reflection on Nuyoricans
, is that "Chicanos and Puerto Ricans in the U.S., the present pillars of the so-called 'Hispanic" minority, stand at the same juncture, straddling North and South America and embodying unequal, oppressive relation between them" (182).
From suggestive, "surreal" photographic collages in the early 1970s, to the ironic concreteness of his Auto-Portraits series, and, finally, to the creation of an ethereal, ubiquitous country where he and his Out of Focus Nuyoricans
colleagues live, Adal has collapsed self-portraiture's allegedly self-referential quality.
Both anthologies include Chicanos, Nuyoricans
, Cuban Americans, and other Latinos who write in English (Nicholasa Mohr, Achy Obejas, and Junot Diaz, for instance) as well as a smattering of bilingual works that would suffer from translation (such as Gloria Anzaldtia's "How to Tame a Wild Tongue" in Herencia and Dolores Prida's Coser y cantar in En otra voz).
For Vando, Nuyoricans
abrogate this romantic nostalgia for the homeland, asserting the impossibility of return.
Based on ethnographic research on Puerto Ricans on the island and mainland, this paper examines why Nuyoricans
' identities are disparaged by island and mainland Puerto Ricans.
(6) William Burgos, in his essay, "Puerto Rican Literature in a New Clave: Notes on the Emergence of the DiaspoRican," also sees this shift as having significant consequence to Nuyorican
identity because "as other Latino groups are now displacing Puerto Ricans in New York neighborhoods they once dominated, and as Nuyoricans
are increasingly moving to other places in the United States or moving to Puerto Rico, the centrality, indeed the hegemony of that New York-based culture may be ending or entering a new phase" (Burgos 2008: 126).
By the end of the novel both promises remain unfulfilled; however, for Chino and readers invested in bettering the lives of US minorities the question remains: which is the most promising model of multicultural citizenship for Nuyoricans
living within the twenty-first-century American empire?
Esteves is identified with a group of poets commonly referred as Nuyoricans
. (14) Accentuating her rich heritage, Esteves defines herself asa "Puerto Rican-Dominican-Boriquena-Quisqueyana-Taino-African-American." In addition to publishing six collections of poetry, she is one of the founders of the Nuyorican