(17) Another related weak verb attested in Old English to which these forms can belong is scea[thorn]ian 'injure' (which corresponds to OIcel
, ska[eth]a/ska[eth]a[eth]i, OHG scadon/scadota and sce[thorn][thorn]an/sce[thorn]ede (Bosworth and Toller 1898: 437).
drygja, OE dreogan 'to do, perpetrate, perform; suffer, endure'; see Neckel 'Altnordisch draugr in Mannkenningar', Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur, xxxix (1914), 189-200; cf.
The discussion (439-53) of gast 'spirit' is important to Clemoes who disregards established etymologies when he adduces OIcel
. geisa, as he looks for Proto-Germanic meanings.(4) Without availing himself of any valid semantic theory, he thinks it somehow remarkable that the word could stand for 'every kind of spirit of whatever origin', and he resorts to analogy (439):