(50) On Kazakhs migrating to "Central Asia" or Uzbekistan, see "Spetssvodka sekretno politicheskogo otdela OGPU
SSSR o khode khlebozagotovok i otkochevkakh v Kazakhstane," 7 December 1932, Doc.
According to the Polish intelligence, both women were Soviet OGPU
(State Political Directorate) agents.
A second "counterrevolutionary wrecking group" was discovered by the OGPU
transport department in 1933 in the directorate of the railroad operations (ekspluatatsiia) and in its second operational district; its leaders were the directorate's deputy chief N.I.
(1) Translated from its Russian moniker meaning "Joint State Political Directorate" or "All-Union State Political Administration," the acronym OGPU
identifies the Soviet Union's secret police, in operation from 1922-1934.
Mikhail Yakubovich, a defendant in one of the show trials, describes his meeting with Prosecutor General Krylenko after weeks of torture by the OGPU
(All-Union State Political Administration) to discuss his upcoming trial:
He was arrested and interrogated by agents from OGPU
(later the KGB), but refused to give away any secrets, before he was shot in November.
" (4) A sponsor of the bill explained: "Before the advent of Hitler or Stalin, who took power from the German and Russian people, measures were thrust upon the free legislatures of those countries to deprive the people of the possession and use of firearms, so that they could not resist the encroachments of such diabolical and vitriolic state police organizations as the Gestapo, the OGPU
, and the Cheka." (5)
Beneath these details one senses inexorable forces at work: as early as 1925 the OGPU
reported 'an increase ...
Orlov's partner, Pavlunovsky, alias Sumarokov, was himself a long-time OGPU
(Soviet secret police) officer who had "defected" in Berlin, and another of Orlov's closest collaborators, Nikolai Kroshko, was later revealed to be an undercover Soviet agent.
In 1928, Stalin announced the first in what would become a series of Five Year Plans, mandating the forced collectivization of agricultural land in the Soviet Union, Two years later, the OGPU
, or Soviet Secret Police, promulgated a policy calling for the "liquidation of the kulaks as a class." There was no particular rhyme or reason involved in determining what constituted a "kulak"; Snyder recounts one local party leader stating, "We create kulaks as we see fit." Basically, any peasant who owned land was considered a kulak, and this relatively privileged position meant that they had to be eliminated in order to allow "history" to proceed apace.
In 1925 after many adventures, Reilly was lured by an OGPU
(Soviet secret service) agent to enter Russia, arrested in September 1925, interrogated and shot that November.
Dismissing the idea of an intelligent leftwing comic book for children because leftist ideologues are hopelessly earnest, Orwell noted that "Boys of the OGPU
, or The Young Liquidators" would not do.