Short-term oral toxicity of homoyessotoxins, yessotoxin and okadaic acid
CN activity, which is measured by release of 32p from the phosphorylated substrate, is therefore determined in the presence of okadaic acid
, which inhibits protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A).
KEY WORDS: diarrhetic shellfish toxin, DSP, okadaic acid
, dinophysistoxin, pectenotoxin, yessotoxin, Dinophysis acuminata, LC-MS/MS
ABSTRACT This paper presents the results from an experiment, where uptake and elimination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) of the okadaic acid
(OA) and pectenotoxin (PTX) groups were compared between blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and European oysters (Ostrea edulis).
Only the okadaic acid
(OA) and OA esters were observed.
Chemical analysis by LC-MS conducted in mussels harvested from this region showed, in addition to the presence of okadaic acid
(OA) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2), the presence of azaspiracid-2 (AZA2) as the dominant form of the azaspiracid's (AZAs) family, followed by AZA1 (13% to 26%).
Although bivalves that are actively feeding on nontoxic algae are likely to exhibit faster depuration (Bricelj & Shumway 1998), when mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, contaminated with PSP toxin, okadaic acid
, were transferred to a toxin-free zone the rate of depuration did not decrease significantly (Blanco et al.
(OA) and 35-methylokadaic acid (DTX-I) were purchased from Alexis Biochemicals, Lausen, Switzerland.
Five groups of marine biotoxins are regulated within the European Union, i.e., okadaic acid
group (OA), also known as the diarrheic shellfish poisons (DSPs), which includes the dinophysistoxin analogues (DTXs); azaspiracid group (AZAs), which can also cause diarrhoea; yessotoxin group (YTXs); domoic acid group (DA), also known as amnesic shellfish poisons (ASPs); and saxitoxin group (STXs), also known as paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) (EFSA, 2009).
The aim of the present study is to identify candidate genes for toxic tides studies with the presence of diarrheic shellfish toxin (okadaic acid
) in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819), which could be used as reference genes in RT-qPCR to normalize the expression of the studied genes.
Cobalt (II) chloride (Co[Cl.sub.2]), desferoxamine (DFO), dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), okadaic acid
(OA), and glutathione (GSH) were provided by Sigma-Aldrich, USA.
To further investigate the differentiation of myofibroblasts regulated by FC compared to other factors, the cells were treated with FC, TGF [beta]1, okadaic acid
(OA, a PP2A inhibitor), or the combination of these factors.