Three chemically different lipophilic groups of toxins have been historically associated with DSP: okadaic acid
(OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTX), pectenotoxins (PTX), and yessotoxins (Dominguez et al.
CN purified from bovine brain, CaM, EGTA, EDTA, CsA, and tacrolimus were purchased from SigmaAldrich; okadaic acid
(OA) from Ascent Scientific; and sanguinarine chloride (SC) from Tocris Bioscience.
Toxins that cause DSP include the okadaic acid
(OA) group of toxins.
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is an acute gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalve mollusks that have accumulated okadaic acid
(OA) or related dinophysistoxins through filter feeding.
Acetyl-L-carnitine attenuates okadaic acid
induced tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory impairment in rats.
induce the secretion of TNF-[alpha] from various cells, then the TNF-[alpha] acts as an endogenous tumor promoter (Komori et al.
Several PP1 and PP2A inhibitors, such as okadaic acid
, nodularin, and microcystin-LR, are classified as tumor promoters (Fujiki and Suganuma 1999).
The chemicals of focus are okadaic acid
, brevetoxins, lyngbyatoxin A, caulerpenyne, bryostatins, and isocyano terpenes.
First confirmation of human diarrhoeic poisonings by okadaic acid
esters after ingestion of razor clams (Solen marginatus) and green crabs (Carcinus maenas) in Aveiro lagoon, Portugal and detection of okadaic acid
esters in phytoplankton.
Sira Technologies has held the patent on a solid-phase immunobead assay (S-PIA) that has been used successfully in detecting ciguatoxin and okadaic acid
DATs are phosphorylated and down-regulated in response to protein kinase C (PKC) activators and the protein phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid
Clinically important chemotherapeutic agents used in cancer treatment that stimulate production of ceramide include daunorubicin, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine, yinblastine, etoposide, tamoxifen, suramin, fludarabine, taxanes, irinotecan, and okadaic acid
, as well as ionizing radiation used in radiation therapy.