The Old Prussian
tribes inhabited 11 regions (in the Old Prussian
language, "tautos"), whose names are mentioned in writings from the 13th century: Semba, Natanga, Nadrava, Pamede, Varme, Barta, Skalva, Sudava, Galinda, and Kulma.
Thus, the Masurian land is to Kruk, who calls himself "the last of the tribe of Old Prussians
," a space of searching and confirming identity, both that individual and that collective.
But the old Prussian
State Library came fairly close to fulfilling that function; its unachieved status is less regrettable than the loss of so many of its holdings as the spoils of war.
MacDonogh has a special fondness for the old Prussian
Junkers, the minor nobility, many of them fiercely anti-Nazi, who were the special target of the Red Army's class hatred: one elderly nobleman had all four of his limbs hacked off before his still-living torso was thrown to his own pigs.
As for the attitude of the old Prussian
elite, writes Clark, "the gap between noble circles and the National Socialist movement was narrower than has often been supposed." Members of the circle around von Papen, who secured Hitler's installation as chancellor, thought they could manage Hitler "as if he were a part time gardener or a passing minstrel," in Clark's happy phrase.
Five distinct types are often identified: the first is the earliest unions bringing together Reformed and Lutheran churches in Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia in the 19th and early 20th centuries (the Old Prussian
Union of 1817, later the Evangelical Church of the Union, in Germany).
(106) They were all disappointed at the collaboration between the old liberal parties and the old-new regime established after the 1920 elections to the Reichstag and mainly composed of representatives of the old Prussian
and local elites.
Counterpoint is a pragmatic and forthright showing of Libeskind's oeuvre and Matthias Reese does well in limiting the objects on show in the huge whitewashed rooms of the old Prussian
court building which now functions as the historical entrance to the Berlin Jewish Museum.
To that end, I have conducted a comparative study of three diverse Protestant church districts between 1933 and 1945: Ravensburg, in the Wurttemberg Evangelical Land Church; Nauen, in the Brandenburg Church Province of the Old Prussian
Union Church; and Pirna, in the Evangelical Lutheran Land Church of Saxony.
The title aptly summarizes the intent of the book: to understand the institutionalization of the Confessing Church in the territory of the Old Prussian
Union (BKdAPU) as an early form of resistance to National Socialism.