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Old South Arabian documents and inscriptions; pre-Islamic documents and inscriptions from the north of the Arabian peninsula and adjacent regions inhabited by Arabic-speaking peoples; and reports concerning Arabic documents in Arabia during the period of the rise of Islam.
Some parallels to this feature can be found in the Old South Arabian legal documents written on wooden sticks.
Inscriptions by the gateway in old South Arabian alphabet refer to the foundation of the city and evidence from utensils, coins and pottery found at the site indicate that Sumhuram enjoyed strong maritime links with the countries of the Mediterranean region, India and the Gulf.
No single library has such a wide range of books on Old South Arabian studies, many of which easily might go unnoticed.
Schiettecatte's book fills a niche which in many ways updates our knowledge of Old South Arabian towns, cities, and history.
Next there is the evidence of Old South Arabian, whose alphabet includes a separate grapheme for gayin, though apparently Mendenhall includes this language in his "proto-Arabic language complex." Given the many important grammatical differences between Old South Arabian and Arabic, however, one cannot simply assume a close genetic relationship between these two distinct languages used in the Arabian peninsula.
196), Proto-Semitic split into Proto-South Arabian (which developed into the six Modern South Arabian languages), and a tripartite division into (1) [Proto-]Palaeo-Syrian (yielding Eblaite, Ugaritic, Phoenician, Hebrew, etc.), (2) Proto-Amorite (yielding Aramaic, which in turn develops into the Arabic sub-branch, including Safaitic, Lihyanic, Thamudian, and Classical and modern Arabic dialects) and [Proto-] South Semitic (developing into the Old South Arabian languages, such as Sabaean, Minean, and Qatabanian, in addition to Ethiopic), and (3) Akkadian.
This view groups Arabic with Old South Arabian and Northwest Semitic, with Modern South Arabian under a different node along with Ethiopic in the South Semitic subbranch.
For a more detailed treatment of Old South Arabian (OSA) numismatics the reader is referred to S.
notes that the Modern South Arabian languages "probably" do not directly derive from Old South Arabian (p.
Norbert Nebes initiates the section on South Semitic by examining the non-augmented groundstem in Old South Arabian (pp.