This also eliminates the need to periodically perform cumbersome and time-consuming maintenance procedures such as optical axis
adjustment that are required with transmitted light detectors that use separate light launcher and detector.
This design allows optical spacing to be infinitely adjustable along the optical axis
. To ease adjustment, Edmund Optics thus introduced a custom-designed multi-element tube tensioner wrench, which has a hollow bore to allow a pass-through during adjustment.
In x-ray detectors the primary x-ray absorption induces a cascade of secondary electrons and photons which are measured at the front or back of the detector, but during the long transport to the point of detection these can spread orthogonally to the optical axis
. This limits the resolution in present bulk detectors.my novel concept is to create a nanostructured detector based on an array of semiconductor nanowires, which will confine and physically prevent spreading of the secondary electrons and photons.
Fujifilm first applied 10G shocks to lenses from six different directions orthogonal to the optical axis
. This was followed by exposure to various sinusoidal vibrations according to IEC 60068-2-6, up to 500Hz and 100m/[s.sup.2].
In this paper, we used the method of ray-tracing simulation  and the solar cell circuit network model [12-18] to analyze the illumination distribution and the power performance of the solar cell at different positions of the optical axis
. The illumination distribution of different spectral bands and the power output performance of triple-junction solar cells were obtained.
In particular, for the soil selection in the places of accumulation of bacterial mats, the operator specifies the 5 target points [A.sub.i] (i = [bar.1, 5]) via the moving of the optical axis
5 of the camera.
Another approach for increasing the absorption is to turn the optical axis
of HM in such a way that the direction of the resonance cone generatrix would coincide with the normal to the HM interface [5-7].
When designed correctly, the main radiation lobe of the side-firing fiber is almost orthogonal to the fiber's optical axis
which is an ideal factor in the design of the probe.
Further, as the lens is supposed to be planar and symmetric about optical axis
, two-angle parameters should be sufficient to express the homography between the tilted image plane and ideal image plane [23, 27].
By displacing the upper lens group (comprising of three lenses) along the optical axis
relative to the lower lying lens group, the actual working distance can easily be adjusted (see figure).
The problem is that still photography lenses are designed primarily for shooting still images, and therefore prone to focus shift and optical axis
shift while zooming, and so on.
The anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL were plotted to determine its optical axis
. The pupillary axis was calculated as the line passing through the anterior corneal center of curvature and the center of the pupil.