The elevation values were recorded as North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) orthometric
heights using the GEOID12B geoid model to transform them from the North American Datum of 1983.
Similarly, VERTCON  and more recently VDATUM (http://vdatum.noaa.gov/) in the USA allow vertically transformation of geospatial data among a variety of tidal, orthometric
, and ellipsoidal vertical data.
 Dracup J., Fronczek C., Tomlinson R.: "Guidelines for Establishing GPS-Derived Orthometric
The basis of a lattice has the feature that a shorter basis will be more orthometric
. Lattice reduction is the process by which the nearest short base vector is found while the orthogonality of the base vector is improved.
Keywords:Global geopotential model, GNSS/levelling, Geoid undulations, Orthometric
and ellipsoidal heights.
According to the above time-lag feature of reverse spillover and orthometric
interest margin, this study conduct conversion and elimination of individual effect to obtain the correlated factor validation result of reverse spillover effect of OFDI in manufacturing and dynamic threshold effect with the following formula:
This method is based on the transformation of ellipsoidal heights to orthometric
heights (Fotopoulos, 2003, 2005; Erol and Erol, 2013).
In this study two were used: the Canadian Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1928 (CGVD28) as orthometric
datum (nominally equivalent to mean sea level) and hydrographic Chart Datum.
Abraham Zelmanov's profundity "sine qua non" is reflected in the singular creation of the theories of chronometric, kinemetric, and orthometric
(monad) formalism in General Relativity, the Infinite Relativity Principle, the Anthropic Principle, the extensive classification of all possible cosmological models in the space-time of General Relativity (the Zelmanov Classification, including the possibility of absolute reference frames in a deforming, rotating, gravitating closed finite Universe), and many others (see the website of The Abraham Zelmanov Journal for details, and in particular the 2012 foreword to the book Particles Here and Beyond the Mirror).
The actual orthometric
height difference [DELTA]H of point B is the length of the plumb line (passing through the point B) in between the reference surface [W.sub.0] and the surface [W.sub.B].
The [d.sup.z.sub.trop] term (total zenith delay) is computed differently based on the orthometric
height (altitude) of the antenna.