Current threats to Cisco populations include nutrient-induced eutrophication, competition with invasive species like Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax
), warming summer water temperature and extended thermal stratification, and overharvesting (Latta, 1995; Hrabik, et al, 1998; Stockwell et al, 2009; Jacobson et al., 2012).
Three of the species without significant responses at this site--fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax
), and Arctic flounder (Pleuronectes glacialis)-are nearshore marine species that are less tolerant of low salinities than the other species assessed in BACI analyses, all of which were anadromous or amphidromous.
The diet for all birds in the colony consisted of 4.5 kg fish each day, including herring (Clupea harengus), smelt (Osmerus mordax
), silverside (Menidia species), and occasional trout (Salvelinus species), and supplemented with vitamins (Mazuri Sea bird tablet daily [Mazuri, PMI Nutrition, Brentwood, MO, USA]; vitamin E and vitamin B1 4 days a week).
Saffron cod (95% FO) and rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax
, (55% FO) were most prevalent, followed by sculpins (9% FO).
Anxious listeners awaited the radio announcer's signal that the silvery fish, with the scientific name of Osmerus mordax
, were making their way to the spawning grounds.
and Phosphorus Management on Rainbow Smelt, Osmerus mordax
Synchronized hatch and its ecological significance in rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax
An otolith-based back-calculation method to account for time-varying growth rate in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax
Mercury bioaccumulation in forage fish communities invaded by rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax
Howes & Sanford and Johnson & Patterson found, in a specimen of Osmerus mordax
, a spherical, partially ossified body lying posterior to the mandibular symphysis that, according to Howes & Sanford, appears to be somewhat similar to the 'interdentary' of Plecoglossus.
Balcher (1983) found that young rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax
) prefer copepods to cladocerans, locating cladocerans from a similar distance to copepods but avoiding attacks on the spiny cladoceran forms.
masquinongy) in three, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in two, redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) in two, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in two, brown trout (Salmo trutta) in two, rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax
) in one, flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) in one, and other salmonids in one.