As an osmoregulator
, Litopenaeus vannamei has a strong ability to regulate its osmotic pressure and blood ions in a certain level when exposed to an ambient salinity change, during which they need much more extra energy (Pante 1990, Pequeux 1995).
Biofilm formation is regulated by numerous regulators, including the two-component osmoregulator
EnvZ/OmpR and the global regulator FlhD/FlhC.
NAA is an acetyl donor and possibly as an osmoregulator
of the nerve cell (28) and is believed to be a marker of neuronal density, whereas NAAG is the most abundant peptide neurotransmitter in the human brain (27).
Effects of CaCl2 on growth and osmoregulator
accumulation in NaCl stressed cowpea seedlings.
We can assume that if this species--considered a good iono- and osmoregulator
with a high metabolic capacity--is affected by ocean acidification, organisms without these features might be affected even more.