Plain radiographs of the patients were examined and graded according to the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grading system (Kellgren & Lawrence, 1957), using the following grades: grade 0, normal; grade 1, doubtful narrowing of joint space and possible osteophytes
only; grade 2, definite osteophytes
and definite joint space narrowing; grade 3, moderate multiple osteophytes
, definite joint space narrowing, some severe sclerosis, and possible deformity of bone contour; and grade 4, large osteophytes
, severe joint space narrowing, severe bony sclerosis, and definite deformity of bone.
However, it has been reported that transplanted cells can leak from the intervertebral space, which results in the formation of undesirable bone spurs (osteophytes
), severely complicating the restorative processes .
The common signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis are joint pain on weight bearing, morning stiffness, joint swelling, deformity and degenerative changes, osteophytes
and altered alignment on x-rays.
Degenerative bone changes of the TMJ are significantly more frequent in the head of the mandible than in the articular eminence, and are characterized by the development of osteophytes
, erosions, avascular necroses, subchondrial cysts and intra-articular foreign bodies.
In lumbar disc degeneration (LDD), discs become dehydrated and lose height, and the vertebrae next to them develops bony growths called osteophytes
, leading to lower back pain.
Anterior ankle exostoses (also called "spurs," or "osteophytes
") are generally regarded as sequelae of bony impingement of the anterior edge of the tibial plafond impacting the neck of the talus.
Development of secondary osteoarthritic changes including osteophytes
, erosions, sclerosis and joint space narrowing, as well as later tibial articular surface involvement, marks stage 5 disease.
C5/6 is commonly degenerate in the people over the age of 40, with reduced disc height and anterior osteophytes
. Foraminal osteophytes
may be visible on the oblique views, but again most are not pathological.
In five different reported series, the prevalence of cartilage defects visible by MRI in OA patients was 85%-98%, and the prevalence of osteophytes
was 70%100%, Dr.
Radiological features of EOA include joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, marginal osteophytes
, and erosions which begin at the central portion of the joint and give characteristic patterns of the affected joints known as "gull-wing" and "saw-tooth" deformities.
In the cervical spine, an x-ray showed large anterior osteophytes
at C2 and C3 (figure 1, A).
, Heberden's nodes, Bouchard's nodes, and joint space narrowing can be seen in both EOA and osteoarthritis, but central erosions are characteristic of only EOA.