In 1898, however, Kharuzin published (again in Etnograficheskoe obozrenie) a study of the cult of the bear among the Ostiaks and Voguls (Khanty and Mansi) of western Siberia, in which he applied to the fullest extent in his writings the methods and assumptions of evolutionist theory.
But to say, as was clearly the case, that totemism did not exist among the Ostiaks and Voguls in the present day did not mean that it had not existed at some point in the distant past.
For example, in Siberia Ostiaks
and Tatars who converted to Orthodoxy were to be provided a new shirt, some tribute (iasak), and select privileges from the regional governors: Gramota, 6 December 1711, PSZ, 5:133.
In explaining the peculiarities of the environment within which traditional worldviews were formed and functioned, the missionaries pointed out that "the beliefs of the Ostiaks and Samoyeds were formed partly under the influence of the conditions of life ...
"Besides shamanism the Samoeds, and in particular the Ostiaks, practice idol worship.
In the spring of 1933, over ten thousand deportees/colonists were dumped on the shore of Nazino Island--a great distance from the regional capital of Tomsk, and also the nearest railroad--among the local Ostiak