The study area is mainly covered by woodlands: chestnut trees Castanea sativa, oaks Quercus cerris and mixed hardwood formations, mainly Ostrya
carpinifolia, dominate forests at lowest altitudes while, in the highest parts, mountain beech Fagus sylvatica, in association with maples Acer spp., prevails.
Walters, Kruger e Reich (1993) avaliando o desenvolvimento inicial de Betula papyrifera, Betula alleghaniensis, Ostrya
virginiana, Quercus rubra e Acer saccharum verificaram que a RMF tem maior importancia na TCR.
Preliminary identifications based on fossil pollen consist of about 18 recognized forms, and confirm the presence of several of the more common megafloral genera, and add Abies, Castanea/Lithocarpus, Choenopodiaceae, Ostrya
, and assorted fungal and monolete spores.
The eastern portion of the study area was a mixed forest dominated by oak (Quercus spp.), beech (Fagus grandifolia), ash (Fraxinus spp.), elm (Ulmusspp.), and maple (Acerspp.) and to a lesser degree included alder (Alnus spp.), basswood (Tilia americana), birch (Betula spp.), black gum (Nyssa sylvatica), buckeye (Aesculus spp.), cherry (Prunus spp.), hackberry (Ceitis ocadentalis), hickory (Carya spp.), ironwood (Carpinus caroliniana and Ostrya
virginiana), locust (Robiniapseudoacacia or Gleditsia triacanthos), mulberry (Monisspp.), pine (Pinusspp.), poplar (Pofmlus spp.), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), tamarack (Larix laruna), tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), walnut (Juglans spp.), willow (Salix spp.), and unidentified hardwoods (Fig.
Both morphological and molecular studies have generally recognized two major lineages in Betulaceae either as tribes Betuleae (Alnus and Betula) and Coryleae (Corylus, Ostryopsis, Carpinus, and Ostrya
) (Jussieu, 1789; Prantl, 1894; Winkler, 1904; Melchior, 1964; Li & Skvortsov, 1999), or as subfamilies Betuloideae and Coryloideae (Spach, 1841; Regel, 1861, 1868; Koehne, 1893; Rendle, 1925; Rehder, 1940; Hutchinson, 1967, 1973; Dahlgren, 1975, 1980, 1983; Jury, 1978; Takhtajan, 1980; Thome, 1973, 1983; Furlow, 1990; Bousquet et al., 1992; Chen et al., 1999; Forest et al., 2005; Grimm & Renner, 2013).
Most of the study area (67%) is covered by deciduous woodlands, mainly composed by Quercus cerris, Castanea sativa, Ostrya
carpinifolia, Carpinus betulus, Fraxinus ornus and Robinia pseudoacacia.
in Turkey, Ostrya
, Carpinus, Crateagus, Quercus, Fagus, Castanea, Tilia, Ulmus, Pistacia, Pyrus etc.), in herbaceous plants (Salicornia, Achillea, Spartium) and in woody legumes (Ononis, Dorycnium).
This vegetation is gradually replaced by deciduous shrublands at higher altitudes (700-900 m asl), mainly composed by Carpinus orientalis, Fraxinus ornus, Acer monspessulanum, Ligustrum vulgare, Lonicera etrusca, Cornus mas and Ostrya
carpinifolia, although this sub-mediterranean vegetation is probably a result of human impact, overgrazing and forest fires (Tsiftsis & al., 2007).
In Syria, it occurs at Slenfch (Lattakia) and forms mixed forests with Ostrya
carpinifolia, Carpinus orientalis, Sorbus torminalis, Fraxinus ornus and Cerasus mahleb (Browicz, 1982).
(Oestlund) Macrosiphum (Neocorylobium) Ostrya
virginiana, Corylus spp.
In northern Europe, firewood is obtained from birch (Betula pendula Roth.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and spruce (Picea abies Karst.), while beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), oak (Quercus sp.), and hornbeam (Ostrya
carpinifolia Scop.) are dominant further south.