The study area is mainly covered by woodlands: chestnut trees Castanea sativa, oaks Quercus cerris and mixed hardwood formations, mainly Ostrya carpinifolia
, dominate forests at lowest altitudes while, in the highest parts, mountain beech Fagus sylvatica, in association with maples Acer spp., prevails.
Most of the study area (67%) is covered by deciduous woodlands, mainly composed by Quercus cerris, Castanea sativa, Ostrya carpinifolia
, Carpinus betulus, Fraxinus ornus and Robinia pseudoacacia.
This vegetation is gradually replaced by deciduous shrublands at higher altitudes (700-900 m asl), mainly composed by Carpinus orientalis, Fraxinus ornus, Acer monspessulanum, Ligustrum vulgare, Lonicera etrusca, Cornus mas and Ostrya carpinifolia
, although this sub-mediterranean vegetation is probably a result of human impact, overgrazing and forest fires (Tsiftsis & al., 2007).
In Syria, it occurs at Slenfch (Lattakia) and forms mixed forests with Ostrya carpinifolia
, Carpinus orientalis, Sorbus torminalis, Fraxinus ornus and Cerasus mahleb (Browicz, 1982).
In northern Europe, firewood is obtained from birch (Betula pendula Roth.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and spruce (Picea abies Karst.), while beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), oak (Quercus sp.), and hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia
Scop.) are dominant further south.
[I.sup.+2] [I.sup.+1] Emeroides Ostrya carpinifolia
[I.sup.11] Characteristic species of Astragalo-Brometea Teucrium polium [III.sup.+2] [II.sup.+1-+2] Anthemis pestalozzae (End.) [I.sup.+1-+2] Alyssum murale var.