I refuse to accept the idea that the "isness" of man's present nature makes him morally incapable of reaching up for the eternal "oughtness
" that forever confronts him....
The Origin of Oughtness
: A Case for Metaethical Conativism
" manifests normativity--as both a norm-setting and a norm-applying attribute of research.
"So somehow the 'isness' of our present nature is out of harmony with the eternal 'oughtness
' that forever confronts us.
" that aims at both modifying state interests and
To that extent, the oughtness
in that type of relationship is that of cooperation.
I refuse to accept the idea that the "isness" of man's present condition makes him morally incapable of reaching up for the eternal "oughtness
" that forever confronts him.
(6.) Although not elaborated in this brief paper, it has to be noted that ethics as theory of conduct (or, more generally, axiology as theory of value) in relation to something presupposes knowing what that thing is, hence questions of "oughtness
" assume answers to much more fundamental questions of "whatness": what is human nature and what is the nature of the world in which humans live and pursue their livelihoods.
Further, injunctive social norms have a moral dimension--an "oughtness
"--about them, an internal dimension that is much discussed in jurisprudence.
One such reason might be this: In the same way that assertion conversationally commits the speaker to the truth of what is asserted, issuing an imperative conversationally commits the speaker to the requisiteness (or oughtness
) of the action the imperative instructs.
This identification is based on recognizing that a norm is "a standard of appropriate behavior for actors with a given identity" and thus has qualities both intersubjective (meaning shared understandings) and evaluative (meaning sense of "oughtness
There is a sense of divine oughtness
from which there is no escape.