If [N.sup.+],(0,T) is the number of out-crossings
in the time interval [0,T], Ditlevsen and Madsen  have shown that the mean number of out-crossings
can be found by integrating the out-crossing
rate over the period of interest, i.e., [mathematical expression not reproducible] and Shinozuka  developed an expression for the bounds of the cumulative probability of failure.
Consequently if Bt and non-Bt plants grown in close proximity then out-crossing
occurs and results in Bt gene transfer to seeds of non-Bt refuge bolls (Zhang et al.
But the Agrobacterium containing the genes could get into an out-crossing
plant, which then might spread.
The plant species that result from out-crossing
maintain the majority of their distributed genetic variability within the population, in contrast to a predominantly self-pollinated species in which the majority of the genetic variability is distributed between populations (Hamrick & Godt 1989).
Many believed the findings to be the result of contamination from other seeds, the introduction of unrelated genetic material into the breeding line (out-crossing
), or another novel DNA-based genetic phenomenon.
Two basic scenarios are presented, which are out-crossing
methods [4-7] and extreme value methods [8, 9].
In researching the records, I found only two putative cases of out-crossing
of the bufflehead in the 20th century, but I found 12 cases in the last decade, most of it posted online through birders' networks, along with good photographs showing the strange combination of features.
Rice is self-pollinating, so out-crossing
- interbreeding with other rice varieties - is virtually impossible.
The report advised against grandparent to grandchild mating and said that out-crossing
must not be ruled out.
Mrs Kisko said the Kennel Club was "dedicated to improving the health of all dogs" and had "encouraged out-crossing
in certain breeds for more than a decade".
ABSTRACT Because the accumulation of inbreeding within hatchery-propagated stocks of the hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758), could result in reduced growth and survival, we studied the potential for improving performance through out-crossing
among existing hatchery strains.
rates for 10 Canadian spring wheat cultivats.