In fact, most of the literature (Khanna et al., 1998) focuses on private benefits 'a firm can earn unilaterally by picking up skills from its partner and applying them to its own operations in areas unrelated to the alliance activities' or on firm behaviours oriented to outlearn
the partner as fast as possible to reduce the dependency on the other part (Hamel, 1991; Larsson et al., 1998).
To the extent that an alliance partner is able to "outlearn
" the other, the asymmetries in skills and capabilities can produce reductions in competitiveness.
The ability to maintain a competitive advantage depends not only on the Nation's manpower, fiscal resources, industrial capacity, and technology prowess, but also on the ability to outthink and outlearn
adversaries, thereby making it more difficult for them to design and build military capabilities that threaten the United States and its allies.
According to Hamel (1991), a partner's control intent may be driven by its objective of outlearn
the other alliance partner.
In an alliance, the easier it is to protect competitive advantages from a partner's attempts to outlearn
, the less risky cooperative arrangements are (Hamel 1991).
It's not good enough in a world where the competitive forces of our competition are going to try to outlearn
us and beat us on everything we do.
At a young age you can outwork and outlearn
anyone else--use that untapped ambition and thirst for knowledge to your advantage.
The partners in the alliance strive to outlearn
each other and encounter the challenge of managing the balance between "trying to learn and trying to protect' (Kale et al.