Overhold, "Thailand: A Moving Equilibrium", Pacific Review 1, 1 (1988): 7-23.
Overhold observes that the relative autonomy of Thai institutions has impeded the centralizing control exercised by Marcos and evident in Indonesia's Golkar.
The vast majority of these transactions are arranged by surrogate parenting clinics, at least nine of which advertise regularly in local or national newspapers (Overhold 1988, 165).
Contrary to the negative publicity and torn emotions engendered by the "Babby M" trials, over 500 children have been born as a result of surrogacy and only a handful have experienced contested custody; the vast majority of transactions have gone smoothly with satisfied parties on both sides of the exchange (Overhold 1988).
Overhold summarizes the results from several studies and identifies the primary motivations for surrogates as being altruism, a need to feel good about themselves or make a special contribution to society; guilt over past abortions; personal experiences as adoptive children; and the need to reenact their own childhood abandonment (1988).
However, research by Overhold (1988) suggests that some surrogate mothers are motivated almost solely by the desire to make an altruistic gesture.