surface runoff

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Related to Overland flow: Surface runoff
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surface runoff

[ˌsɜːfɪsˈrʌnɒf] n (Geog) → acque fpl superficiali
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The four-head Norton-style rainfall simulator, used to generate rainfall for the experiments in this study, was designed by the USDA's National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory and has been widely used and tested in many overland flow and soil erosion studies (e.g.
The fact is that overland flow from the Suswa Hills is the main culprit, not a geological tremor.
The objectives of the field study were to better quantify 1080 transport in overland flow during a natural rainfall event, to better understand movement of 1080 into the soil under natural rainfall conditions, to examine the transport of 1080 to shallow groundwater, and to monitor 1080 concentrations in a stream under natural rainfall conditions following a large 1080 application.
In the distributed hydrological models, overland flow is usually simulated with approaches based on the lowest neighbor routing algorithm [8] or the numerical solution of the Saint-Venant equations [9].
The berms divert overland water runoff, thereby creating areas upstream from the berms with uninterrupted overland flow and downstream from the berms where the supply of overland flow is highly restricted.
In conventional dairy systems, losses through overland flow may occur due to fertilizer amendment to fields and grassland pastures.
* fully distributed (KINEROS divides watersheds up into a series of channel elements and overland flow planes, and hsB-SM runs on a 0.0125 [degrees] x 0.0125 [degrees] grid);
This was achieved by: * Overland flow interception, which involves the creation of a bund - a soil, wood or stone barrier - across a flow path to create storage, usually in fields and open land.
The hot water created a wave that covered uniformly the soil surface; along the flume, part of the water flows to the macropores, part infiltrates into the soil, and part flows out of the flume through the downslope outlet, as overland flow. The hot water briefly accumulates inside the macropores before exiting freely the soil layer due to the flume free drainage (Figure 1).
After developing the different input spatial maps (layers), the rate of soil detachment by rain drop impact (F, kg [m.sup.-2]), rate of soil detachment by runoff (H, kg [m.sup.-2]), and transport capacity of overland flow (runoff) (TC, kg [m.sup.-2]) are calculated in the GIS environment as follows:
It involves increasing the capability of the existing drainage system and diverting overland flow of water to culvert inlets, reducing the risk of culvert blockage.
In general, rainfall runoff and erosion are initiated by the impact of rain drops on bare or nearly bare soils, which detaches and splashes soil particles and subsequently transports them downslope as part of overland flow. Net erosion rates (sediment mass/unit area) are a function of both rain splash and overland flow transport.