Previous study has shown that N-isopropyl oxamate was an effective and selective inhibitor due to the close chemical structure existing between N-isopropyl oxamic
acid and the best substrate for HADH-isozyme II, the a-keto isocaproate (Elizondo et al., 2003).
Tenaromatic intermediates generated from hydroxylation, carbonylation, and demethylation reactions were identified together with three carboxylic acids (oxamic, oxalic, and formic acids) and two inorganic ions (N[H.sub.4.sub.+] and N[O.sub.3.sub.-]).
Garcia-Segura and collaborators  claimed that at current densities > 33.3 mA [cm.sup.-2], the removal rate of oxalic and oxamic acids was not improved because of the occurrence of parasitic reactions, such as nonorganic oxidizing reactions with hydroxyl radicals, which led to an efficiency, decrease at higher current densities.
Pyruvic acid sodium salt, 3-fluoropyruvic acid sodium salt, arsenic acid potassium salt, oxamic
acid sodium salt, D,L-carnitine, CoA lithium salt, [NAD+.sup.], thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), phenazine methosulfate (PMS), p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet (INT), crystallized bovine serum albumin (BSA), Triton X-100, sucrose, oxalacetic acid, 5,5-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), acetyl-CoA, uridine, dichloroacetic acid (DCA), Tris, HEPES, EGTA, dithiothreitol (DTT), and monobasic potassium phosphate were all purchased from Sigma Aldrich.
Additional metabolites identified in human blood and/or urine include chloramphenicol glycol alcohol, chloramphenicol aldehyde, chloramphenicol oxamic
acid, chloramphenicol amine, and chloramphenicol base (97,115-118).