In the fifth chapter, she revisited PAGAD
; a vigilante organization that she quoted in the first few paragraphs in her well-argued introduction and an organization that was given a great deal of attention by many others scholars in the social sciences.
Abrahams is at most a sympathiser or fringe supporter of PAGAD
: one cannot imagine him planting bombs that could kill or maim, or setting a gang leader alight (actions that the media, at least, have attributed to PAGAD
According to Tayob (1999) a particular tradition of imam-led and mosque-centred Islam developed in the setting of the Cape, and out of this emerged powerful forms of political engagement, both in the context of the anti-Apartheid struggle, and--after 1994--of violent moral awakening and vigilante mobilizations against crime and drugs such as PAGAD
(Vahed and Jeppie 2005).
The Centre for Defence Information, an independent military research organisation, states that Qibla started in the 1980s, and Pagad
Qibla, which traditionally has espoused Iranian Shi'ite extremist philosophies and vowed a political Jihad, is an ally of PAGAD
and has an anti-U.S, and anti- Israel stance.
appeared in Capetown in 1996,as a response by Muslim communities to the problems of drugs and gangsterism that were ravaging numerous communities while the state was incapable of controlling the situation.
Supporters of People Against Gangsterism and Drugs (Pagad
), Mapogoa-Mathamaga and Umfelandawonye--some known vigilante groups--all name weaknesses with the criminal justice system and the problem of police corruption as reasons for the establishment of these groups.
In South Africa, People Against Gangsterism and Drugs (PAGAD
), a Muslim group, is suspected in a number of bombings and other violent incidents in the Cape Town area, including the August 1998 bombing of a Planet Hollywood restaurant, part of a U.S.
Its various elements are disparate, with differing historical and geographical origins,(39) some were deeply involved in the struggle against apartheid while others are far more cautious;(40) some are openly opposed to others within their broad tradition.(41) The battle for authority over the Muslim community is thus part of our current context, most evidently in the way in which a populist movement, People Against Gangsters and Drugs (PAGAD
), has become a fulcrum for mobilizing more militant elements against more conservative or liberalizing ones.(42)