The presence of an inverse relationship between circulating [Mg.sup.2+] levels and the detected concentrations of endothelin-1, PGI2
, ROS, NO, or renin, or systolic and diastolic blood pressure values, however, leaves unanswered the question as to whether magnesium supplementation can be therapeutic in restoring physiological and age-appropriate pressure values.
Abbreviations C-section: Cesarean section TIPS: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt ATII: Angiotensin II PGI2
: Prostaglandin I2 IVC: Inferior vena cava STI: Sexually transmitted infection HPV: Human papilloma virus NASH: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
And the stimulating process of ET-1 synthesis needs the involvement of Ca2+ (dependent protein kinase C).19 Factors that inhibit ET-1 synthesis include NO, PGI2
, atrial natriuretic peptide, heparin, etc.
The following four aspects might be important for the effects of vitamin D on atherosclerosis: (1) Vitamin D can increase the expression of Ca-ATRase in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, elevate cytosolic free calcium concentrations, induce contractile proteins expression, and then promote production of prostacyclin (PGI2
), which affects the vascular tone; Vitamin D can improve endothelial function by inhibiting the inflammatory reaction and oxidative injury [17,18], and it can decrease vascular stiffness .
In contrast, the imbalance in PGI2
and TX[A.sub.2] production is involved in the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and CI [23, 26, 27].
AEC: alveolar epithelial cell; CCL: C-C motif chemokine ligand; CD40L: CD40 ligand; CXCL: C-X-C motif chemokine ligand; ECAM: endothelial cell adhesion molecule; FGF: fibroblast growth factor; HDAC: histone deacetylase; GM-CSF: granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor; HIF: hypoxia-inducible factor; ICAM: intercellular adhesion molecule; IL: interleukin; NO-sGC-cGMP: nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase-cyclic GMP; MCP: monocyte chemoattractant protein; PDGF: platelet-derived growth factor; PGI2
: prostacyclin; RANTES: regulated upon activation, normally T-expressed, and presumably secreted; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SDF: stromal cell-derived factor; TRPC6: transient receptor potential cation channel 6; VCAM: vascular cell adhesion molecule.
O'Grady, "Side effects occurring during administration of epoprostenol (prostacyclin, PGI2
), in man.," British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol.
This enzyme, now called COX-1, is central to AA catabolism to end up producing PGI2
, also known as prostacyclin, with clear antithrombogenic [8, 9] and cytoprotective to gastric mucosa [10,11] physiological functions.
Interestingly, a recent study showed that BM-MSCs can produce [PGE.sub.2] and prostacyclin (PGI2
The whole blood was supplemented with prostacyclin (PGI2
) at the final concentration of 0.06 f g/ml, and centrifuged for 20 minutes at 230 xg at 21[degrees]C in order to obtain PRP.
Expression of LIF mRNA was used in three studies, expression of LIF protein, and implantation sites were used in two studies, and COX-2, IFN-[gamma], IL-10, integrin [alpha][nu] mRNA, integrin [beta]3 proteins, LIF mRNA/[beta]-actin, MMP-9, NF-[kappa]BOPN mRNA, PGI2
, PPARd, IL-11 mRNA, TIMP-3, apoptotic index, proliferative index, LCM-DE-MS, microvessel density, endometrial thickness, and pinopodes in the epithelium were used in one study (Table 1).
These mediators can be divided into two types: (1) vasodilators, such as endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs), nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2
) , and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) [13-16], and (2) vasoconstrictors, which include endothelin-1, reactive oxygen species (ROS), platelet-activating factor (PAF) , and arachidonic acid (AA) cyclooxygenase-derived metabolites .