We tested the cross-amplification of 90 microsatellite primer pairs developed for other closely species within the Charadriiformes: nine on Saunders's Gull Larus saundersi (Jiang et al., 2011), 22 on Ivory Gull Pagophila
eburnea (Yannic et al., 2011), seven on Red-billed Gull Larus novaehollandiae scopulinus (Given et al., 2002), six on Herring Gull Larus argentatus (Gregory and Quinn, 2005), five on American Herring Gull Larus smithsonianus (Crochet et al., 2003), seven on Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Verkuil et al., 2009), 31 on Little Terns Sternula albifrons (Noreikiene et al., 2012) and three on Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii (Szczys et al., 2005) for variability in Relict Gull.
At-sea observations of the spring migration and pair bonding of Ivory Gulls (Pagophila
eburnea) around Svalbard and East Greenland.
Stenhouse and others (2001) classified the Sabine's Gull as a "solitary low-density" nester, and reported that of 4 closely related species (Sabine's Gull; Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla; Ivory Gull, Pagophila
eburnea; and Swallow-tailed Gull, Creagrus furcatus; Chu 1998; Pons and others 2005), only the Sabine's Gull is often a solitary nester.
The call is a deep "laughing" cry.The Ivory Gull (Pagophila
eburnea) is a small gull, the only species in its genus.
For example, Thick-billed Murre Uria lomvia populations are increasing in Canada (Gaston et al., 2012) but declining in Greenland (Merkel et al., 2014), while Lesser Black-backed Gulls are increasing in Greenland (Boertmann, 2008) and Ivory Gulls Pagophila
eburnea have declined in both Canada (Gilchrist et al., 2008) and Greenland (Gilg et al., 2009).
Those birds that seem clearly to have changed their status over the period covered are Ivory Gull (Pagophila
eburnea), a regular visitor in the 1970s but not seen since 2003; Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), not seen in the 1970s, but seen frequently since 2000; and Baird's Sandpiper, recorded only once in the 1970s, but seen regularly since 2000 and proven to breed twice (Fig.
Sabine's gull (Xema sabini), Ross's gull (Rhodostethia rosea) and ivory gull (Pagophila
Mallory and Gilchrist (2005) noted that ivory gulls (Pagophila
eburnea) were observed at Cape Vera, and at St.
Ivory gulls (Pagophila
eburnea) have been listed as "endangered" in Canada and "near threatened" internationally.
New Longevity Record for Ivory Gulls (Pagophila
eburnea) and Evidence of Natal Philopatry.
Distribution and numbers of breeding ivory gulls Pagophila
eburnea in Severnaja Zemlja, Russian Arctic.