About 25,000 years ago Paleo-Indians
in North America were bartering their wares of flint and shell among each other--500 miles away.
Perhaps the Paleo-Indians
who inhabited Kenosha needed the tusk to create other useful items.
That's fifteen hundred years before anyone thought Paleo-Indians
traveled over the land bridge between Siberia and Alaska and settled in the American Southwest.
From nomadic Paleo-Indians
10,000 years ago to Chiricahua Apache raiders who arrived about the same time as the Spaniards, the land has long been settled.
The projects theme, A walk through time, explores the Pacific Northwests geological transition from the Ice Age, its cataclysmic floods and extinction of mammals, to the emergence of Paleo-Indians
and early settlers in the Tualatin and Willamette Valleys.
"Before this, we really had no idea that Paleo-Indians
were using salmon or fish of any kind," said Carrin Halffman, an archaeologist at the University of Alaska Fairbanks and an author of the report.
The first legitimate settlers were really Paleo-Indians
, who migrated into the area 14,000 years ago and ultimately divided themselves into dozens of tribes.
Waves of paleo-Indians
from Asia cross the Bering Strait Land Bridge from Siberia, eventually settling in what would become the U.S.
And after I became a curator at the ROM, I buried myself in the past for nearly three decades, searching the beginning of the archaeological record for traces of the first people to occupy Ontario at the end of the Ice Age--hunter-gatherers, called Early Paleo-Indians
, who lived some 11,000 years ago.
In Ancient Mexico, the narrative begins with the Paleo-Indians
and traces the rise and fall of Pre-Columbian peoples such as the Olmecs, Maya, Toltecs, and Aztecs.
Willging lays out a definitive historical survey of deer hunting in the Badger State beginning with the spear-throwing Paleo-Indians
of the Upper Midwest, to the sportsmen and women of today with their scoped rifles.
There are some minor errors in the text, such as in the chronology, where it is stated that "Paleo-Indians
live in Saugus, Massachusetts for the next 11,000 years only to be destroyed by the Puritans in the seventeenth century" (xxiii).