Discussing the change of Leviathans as we move from Orwellian nightmares to today's "global cultural hegemony," Suvin points out that what characterizes contemporary dystopias is no longer "the brutal negative collectivism of mass paleotechnic
collectivism" but rather "emptying negative collectivism" which "suppresses individuality by brainwashing the disoriented majority into Disneyfied consumer contentment or at least stupefaction" (63; emphasis original).
The second era, which he refers to as the paleotechnic
phase (after 1750 and into the 20th century), is described as a coal-and-iron complex, during which industrialization caused major ecological damage, and created the most inhuman of working conditions (Mumford singles out coal mining in this regard).
For Geddes, thus, there were two Wests, the paleotechnic
West of the mechanical-colonial era and the neotechnic, vitalist, ecological West.
Over 100,000 square feet of space in the San Jose Convention Center was transformed into the look and feel of an archeological dig, circa 2047, where remnants of the Paleotechnic
Age (1997) were unearthed.
But at no point during the paleotechnic
phase were these improvements made available to the mass of the population.