In Oceanic words r represents an alveolar flap, but in Pama-Nyungan
words r represents a retroflex glide similar to English r, while rr represents an alveolar flap or trill.
Verstraete and Rigsby describe Yintyingka, a Pama-Nyungan
language of central and eastern Cape York Peninsula in North Queensland, Australia.
Bilinarra is a Pama-Nyungan
language in the Ngumpin subgroup of the Victoria River District.
The impetus for carrying out this work now comes from a recent resurgence of interest in kinship studies and systems of social organisation in anthropology, the importance of kinship in the native title context, and advances in sub-grouping and reconstructing the Pama-Nyungan
languages of Australia.
In (28) the agent is encoded as an ergative in the same way as the agent of a two-place predicate, while the recipient and theme both appear in the accusative case: Diyari (Pama-Nyungan
, Central Australia) (28) Ngathu nhinha walypala nhinha-ya ISG.ERG 3SGNF.ACC whiteman 3SGNF.ACC-this marda yingki-lha nganayi.
Ngapari is a term for FM in the Kanyara-Mantharda languages of the western Pilbara and in some Ngayardic languages, with possible cognates with different meaning farther afield in Pama-Nyungan
. Maputyi MF is confined to Ngayardic.
McConvell, P 1996, 'Backtracking to Babel: the chronology of Pama-Nyungan
expansion in Australia', Archaeology in Oceania 31:125-44.
The most apparent case in point is the emergence, between about 5000 and 3000 BP, of the distinctive small tool tradition, an expanded staple vegetable food repertoire, a marked intensification of population, important changes in rock art styles, the development of more widespread trade networks, and the expansion of the Pama-Nyungan
subgroup of languages to occupy the greater part of the continent (see especially the papers by Evans and Jones, Layton, Allen, and McConvell).
-- 1999 Nhanda and Its Position within Pama-Nyungan
, Oceanic Linguistics 38, 297-320.
The Yolngu subgroup of Pama-Nyungan
is located in eastern Arnhem Land, separated from other languages of the Pama-Nyungan
type by a solid block of non-Pama-Nyungan tongues.
1989 Secondary Predication as a Diagnostic of Underlying Syntactic Structure: Evidence from Some Pama-Nyungan
Languages, handout, Australian Linguistic Society Conference workshop on comparative non-Pama-Nyungan, Monash University, September, 6pp.